GS 3 Mains 2020-21 : Must Prepare Topics to get 140+ Marks

Wanna Get Scored  140+ Up In ‘GS 3 Mains’ and rank Top In “UPSC” Exams? Then don’t worry at all, here is the must prepare a complete topic list of 2020-21.

From starting Current Economical situation to Poverty, Indian Growth history, Crowd Funding, etc.

The following is the detailed lists for “GS 3 MAINS” Paper in the UPSC Mains Examination:

Download The PDF: Click Here


Theme No

Themes & Topics to be covered(GS 3 MAINS)

0 Previous Year questions analysis
UPSC Syllabus analysis


1 Indian Economy during Britishers time and at the time of independence(GS 3 MAINS)
Economic Planning – Five Year Plan Journey & various issues in planning system of India
Liberalization, Privatisation and Globalisation in India- Impact on various sectors
NITI AAYOG vs Planning Commission- How’s NITI Ayog different and better than Planning Commission
2 India’s recent growth story (GS 3 MAINS)
India vs China’s growth story- Shortcomings and lessons
Green Economy- Policies and prospects, advantages and steps required
India’s direct shift from agriculture to Industry
3 Inclusive Growth – Meaning, Concept and Elements, Challenges & Issues arising from it (GS 3 MAINS)
Poverty: Policies and Analysis
Poverty line controversy
Inclusive Growth- Poverty reduction, why India should embrace IG? Challenges and solutions
4 Unemployment: Policies and Analysis, causes and measures, government steps(GS 3 MAINS)
Under-employment, Informal sector employment, Fixed Term employment
Demographic Dividend- debates
Inequality in India- Policies and Measures
Universal Basic Income-Debate
Financial Inclusion: Evolution since independence- Policies, effectiveness, etc., impact on different sectors, importance in socio-economic life, etc.
Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) : Provisions, Progress till now, Challenges, Way forward
SDGs- Can India achieve a particular goal by 2030? Challenges and prospects
Low Female Labour Force Participation Rate- Causes, impact, measures

5 Trillion-dollar Economy- Role of different sectors- AI, Agriculture, MSME. Etc- Analysis

5 Investment Model & Resource Mobilisation(GS 3 MAINS)
PPP, Hybrid Annuity Model, Swiss Challenge Model
Crowd funding,
Recent Savings and Investment Trends
Municipal Bonds, Masala Bonds, Green Bonds, Blue Bond
Green Finance
Disinvestments- India’s approach to dis-investments since liberalization, advantages, Problems & Reforms in Public Sector
6 Industrial Policy In India: Evolution since independence (GS 3 MAINS)
Make in India – Limitations and success (Analysis)
Industrial Revolution 4.0 (Is India Prepared?, measures needed, challenges involved)
E-Commerce- the issue of fair pricing, importance in building 5 trillion economy
Skill India, Startup India, SANKALP, STRIVE, SAATHI
7 Labour Reforms- failures, challenges (In context of Migrant Crisis during COVID-19) (GS 3 MAINS)
MSME Reforms,
New IPR Policy, 2016
Ease of doing business- Positive developments, challenges ahead
Textile industry- SAMPADA Scheme, Challenges faced, Measures
Footwear industry- potential, prospects, challenges, competition with China and SEA economies, etc.
8 Infrastructure – Features, Types, financing issues (GS 3 MAINS)
Challenges of infra sector,  Infra Financing issues
9 Infrastructure – Rail & Road(GS 3 MAINS)
High-Speed Rail Project, National Rail Plan 2030, Bibek Debroy Committee, Bharatmala
 New Metro Policy 2017, National Electric Mobility Mission Plan 2020, National Auto Policy 2018
Privatization of Indian Railways- Pros and Cons
10 Infrastructure – Water and Air Transport;(GS 3 MAINS)
UDAN Scheme
Jal Marg Vikas Project
Sagar Mala
Costal employment Zones
Civil aviation Policy 2016
Multi-Modal Logistics Park
India’s capacity to provide Infrastructural safety (Vishakhapatnam Gas leak case)- causes, challenges, etc
Occupational Safety Health and working Conditions Bill, 2019
Logistics Sector
11 Energy Security – Status, Policies, Challenges (GS 3 MAINS)
Oil and Gas: issues and Policies; New Hydrocarbon & Exploration Policy; Natural Gas-role in India’s Energy policy
Power Sector: issues and policies; UDAY Scheme, DISCOMS- Issues and solutions
12 DDU Gram Jyoti Yojna, Saubhagya scheme, KUSUM Yojna,
Sustainable energy solutions- policies and measures, advantages, contribution towards achieving sustainable development
Nuclear energy- Need, prospects, India’s nuclear energy programme, Threats, etc.
13 Renewable Energy: Policies and Challenges- Role in combatting Climate Change (GS 3 MAINS)
Solar Energy
Wind Energy
Nuclear Energy
Shale Gas- shortcomings, significance and measures,
Clean Coal Technology,  coal Bed Methane,  Syngas—potential, applications, advantages and challenges.
Draft National Energy Policy,
National Biofuel Policy- Ethanol Blending Policy: Challenges involved- issues in sugar industry, etc.
FAME India Scheme- Govt planning to replace fossil fuel by electric vehicles: Is it possible? Advantages and challenges
Deep Ocean Mjining- unexplored sector: Causes, measures needed
Relevance of project Samudrayan
14 Urban Development in India & Smart Cities (GS 3 MAINS)
Telecom sector -challenges and solutions, National Digital Communications Policy – 2018
Electronics Industry in India- challenges and issues
15 Digital India,

Cashless economy – advantages, shortcomings, contribution in socio-economic development

Housing Sector & RERA Act, 2017
Green Building- Need, significance, regulation (GRIHA), prospects
16 Rural electrification, Affordable Housing & Real Estate Sector  (GS 3 MAINS)
Rural Development
Bharat Nirmaan, Smart Villages, PURA Scheme
Balanced Regional Development
17 World Trade Organisation(GS 3 MAINS)
Doha Round, India’s Stand of different issues
Rupee depreciation- causes and solutions
Trade & Currency Wars
Protectionism- Trade wars-impact on Indian economy, India’s response to protectionism
GPS issue,  MFN issue
Current issues in Banking Sector
Payments Banks- features, success?
Twin Balance Sheet crises, Project SHASHAKT, Recapitalisation,

Banking Crises & Reforms , Mission Indradhanush, Other required reforms, Causes behind ailing banking sector

Banks merger- advantages, issues, implications on the banking sector, how is it connected with economic growt; Banks privatization
Fugitive Economic Offenders Bill, PARA,

Insolvency and Bankruptcy code- shortcomings and way forward

Demonetisation analysis- Impact
Microfinance institutions- role in poverty alleviation,

MUDRA Bank-issues and challenges

Bitcoins- Policy, challenges, and implications, etc.
RBI vs Government Tussle- the credibility of RBI (Gave 1.76 lakh crore to Union Government)
Food inflation- causes, challenges and solutions
Reforms required in the financial sector
Monetary Policy transmission- Causes behind inefficiency, measures to tackle
Current issues in Taxation Sector 
LTCG on equity,
Increasing tax to GDP Ratio,
Arvind Modi task force on Direct Tax Code,
Long term gains tax and Dividend Distribution tax (2018)
GST, Provisions of GST bill. GST Council, revenue and other implications of Bill, impact on different sectors, etc.
E-Way Bill,
Anti-profiteering Authority.
Current issues in Fiscal Sector
 New FRBM Act, State’s Fiscal Consolidation, steps taken to enhance fiscal stimulus
Gender Budgeting, Union Budget 2019 and 2020,

Transparency in budgeting

15th FC Terms of reference controversy
Public expenditure management and budgeting in the post-liberalization period
Other Issues
Issues related to growth & development in India
The course of GDP Growth and inflation- recent trajectories, causes, implications and solutions
Late Converger’s Stall
The economic slowdown in the last quarter of 2019- its causes, trends and measures needed- structural and cyclical solutions


21 Agriculture during the planning process; Role of agriculture (GS 3 MAINS)
Doubling Farmer’s Income- Challenges and Measures, Ashik Dalwai Committee,
Toxic Farming,  Organic Farming & Evergreen Revolution,
Irrigation systems- trends, Importance and role in social and economic growth, etc
Role and Significance of ICT in reforming agriculture
22 Land Reforms in India – Objectives, Phases, Success and failures(GS 3 MAINS)
Land leasing law,2016; National Land records Modernisation Program, Land acquisition Act 2013
23 Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country,(GS 3 MAINS)
National Year of Millets 2018,

National Bamboo Mission

Different types of irrigation and irrigation systems;(GS 3 MAINS)
PM Krishi Sinchayi Yojna Analysis
Micro Irrigation
Soil Health Card Scheme
Indigenous agricultural practices- Importance, advantages, etc.
Conservation agriculture- Meaning, significance, and principles.
24 Agricultural Credit – Banks/ RRB/ NABARD/ KCC & other angles(GS 3 MAINS)
Agricultural Finance – Features/ Criteria & Need, Sources/ Problems & Measures

Interest Subvention Schemes- their relevance

Agriculture – Crop Insurance in India – Features & Schemes
PM Fasal Bima Yojna- Analysis
25 E-technology in the aid of farmers
Technology missions; Agri R&D
Idea of creating GST type council for agricultural reforms
26 Storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints(GS 3 MAINS)
APMC and E-NAM- issues and solutions
Contract farming- Advantages, policy measures and way forward
2020 Reforms in the agriculture sector
Model Agricultural Produce and Livestock Marketing Act 2018
27 Minimum support prices & Price deficiency payment (GS 3 MAINS)system– Issues and challenges, how it rescue farmers, etc, how to make it more effective
28 Economics of animal-rearing: Rashtriya Gokul Mission(GS 3 MAINS)
Dairy, Fisheries, Sweet Revolution
Importance of indigenous breed in cattle rearing- PASHUPALAN YOJANA- Success of such missions, challenges, measures, etc
Aquaculture- scope and Challenges
Livestock- Importance in the socio-economic life of India, shortcomings, required reforms
Horticulture- Scope and significance, issues and challenges, way forward, etc. National Horticulture Missions- success or failure
Economics of the poultry industry, issues faced due to pandemic, shortcomings and solutions
29 Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and(GS 3 MAINS)
Fertilizer sector reforms
PM KISAN Scheme- Analysis
30 Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping;(GS 3 MAINS)
PDS and Aadhar, National Food Security Act,2013- Issues and suggestions
Issues of buffer stocks and food security; How food distribution can be mad more effective
Global Hunger Index and Nutritional Security; POSHAN Abhiyan
31 Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, Role of supermarkets in supply chain management
Upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.
PM Kisan Sampada Yojna- contribution and shortcomings
32 Other current issues in agriculture(GS 3 MAINS)
Pepsi Co issue
Farmer’s Suicides & Loan Waivers- causes and sustainable solutions
GM Crops and GM Mustard- Ethical issues, benefits, way forward
Agricultural Income Tax
Sustainable Agriculture- Methods, advantages, way forward
Operation Greens- Success?
Sugar Industry-Problems and measures
Farmer Producer organizations- Problems
Draft Pesticide Management Bill 2017
Agriculture Futures


34 Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
AFSPA- issues, advantages, way forward
Left-Wing Extremism- Approach to counter, causes and impacts, solutions
NAXALISM- Causes, steps taken, solutions
NORTHEAST INSURGENCY- Border challenges with Myanmar, Bangladesh, etc

Causes, and solutions to threats in NE.

KASHMIR ISSUE- Role of Over Ground Workers, the nature of threats associated
NAGA PEACE ACCORD- Unresolved issues
Assam Accord 2019- Features, relevance, advantages, shortcomings, etc.
Extremism (in General)- Causes, Impact on society and economy of affected regions, measures and solutions to combat, etc
35 Challenges to internal security through communication networks,
Role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges,
DATA SECURITY- Components and mechanism, Dark net
FAKE NEWS- threats, challenges, impact, policy measures and measures required
Basics of cyber security– Components and mechanism, critical information infrastructure,  role in securing digital India
Social Media Espionage- PEGASUS SCANDAL- threats associated, failure, challenges and Measures, cyber bullying, adolescents threat and online abuse
Cyber Dome project
India’s Cyber security capability-institutions and policies-challenges and measures
Pre-emptive internet shutdowns-security measures- debates, trends, analysis, implications, etc.
36 Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security
Counter-terrorism measures- Need, evolution, Challenges, way forward. India’s Zero tolerance policy on terrorism
Security challenges and their management in border areas
Cross Border terrorism- role cooperation with borders in securing internal security
Linkages of organized crime with terrorism.
Border Management- Measures, policies, shortcomings, and solutions
38 Money-laundering and its prevention, PMLA- Shortcomings, measures,etc.
BLACK MONEY- Sources, causes, solutions
UAPA (Amendment) Act, NIA Act, TADA, POTA, etc.
39 Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.
COASTAL SECURITY- Threats, polices, measures, deployed forces, etc.
Radicalization– Lone-wolf terror attacks- threats, challenges and solutions
DRUG ABUSE- Causes, impacts, connections with cross border migration
40 AADHAR & SECURITY- Issues with privacy, challenges and threats to internal security
COMMUNAL VIOLENCE- Delhi riots- Causes, Impacts, etc.
MOB LYNCHING- Causes, impact, need for law?
Piracy- Threats, challenges, suggestions


41 Evolution of Disaster Management in India
National D.M. Plan 2016
Disaster preparedness and Mitigation
Vulnerability in disaster- Kinds, characteristics  and nature
Hyogo to Sendai Framework
42 Earthquake
Coastal disaster risk reduction and resilience- Threats, preparedness, policy and administration, challenges and solutions
India’s Disaster response mechanism- Limitations, challenges and best practices
Role and Need of technological interventions in disaster management
43 EIA (Environmental impact assessment)
Water crises – issues, Groundwater, solutions
44 Draft National Forest Policy
Climate Change-Impact, link with urbanization, development, etc.
Heat Wave
45 Air Pollution- Problems and Solutions in NCR
Plastic Pollution. Plastic waste management-challenges involved, Single Use Plastic-how to deal with it, recent policy measures, challenges and measures.
Groundwater, River and Ganga Pollution
46 Zero Budget Natural Farming- Advantages and Challenges, how is it better than organic farming
Desertification- UNCCD (COP-2019), India’s commitments, challenges, etc.
Land Degradation- Restoration of degraded land, India’s commitments, challenges
Environment vs Development- Societal, technological and Economical perspectives and challenges
Agro-forestry- advantages, how can it reduce climate risks
Depleting lake ecology, wetland conservation
Western Ghats
CRZ 2018
47 E-Waste- Rules and regulations, policies, and measures required
Solid Waste- processes, policies and regulations (Solid waste management rules)
Coral Bleaching- causes, anthropogenic developments, link with climate change, etc
Bharat IV to VI
Mining, Coastal sand mining- advantages and disadvantages, threats and solutions
Forest Fire- Relation with Climate Change, Impact and solutions
Importance of Indigenous knowledge in environment conservation, urban management


48 Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life ; Achievements of Indians in science & technology;
Indigenization of technology and developing new technology
Defense indigenisation
Innovation and R&D
49 Defense sector
Space sector: Manned Mision
PHWR, Scramjet
Chandrayan 2- how is it different from Chandrayan-1
India’s potential in space research- making India a global space power.
Aim of having its own Space station, how it help the Indian space sector.
Gaganyaan Mission- Significance for India, space weaponization
Mission Shakti- Anti-satellite Missile capability
50 Biotechnology(GS 3 MAINS)
Gene editing- Ethical Conundrum
National Biotechnology Development Strategy
Contribution in different sectors- socio-economic development (Farming),
DNA Tech Bill
Nano-pharmaceuticals- Importance and key features
Hydrogen fuel cell technology- Importance and advantages, way forward
National Policy on synthetic Biology- Need, significance, etc.
Viral diseases- COVID-19- Preparedness, impact, public health system, vulnerability, etc.


51 Computer & IT Sector(GS 3 MAINS)
A.I. – A new oil? applications, potential, (Role in combating pandemic threat), Challenges, India’s policy stands and initiatives
Blockchain Tech- Prospects and challenges
Big Data
Data protection laws in India (Personal Data Protection Bill), – Need, Provisions of the bill, Challenges, etc.
Digital Divide- Implications and measures
Cyber-Physical Prog
Internet of Things- Advantages, applications
Cloud computing, edge computing and Nano computing:  Features, the significance of tech, prospects, etc.
5G Technology- Issues, Scope and advantages, way forward.
Net Neutrality
52 NanoTech- applications, contribution in different sectors, the potential for development, Shortcomings, policy measures and way forward, Nano-pharmaceuticals
IPRs- issues regarding compulsory licensing, policies and issues in India’s IPR regime, issues with other countries like US and EU, solutions
Antibiotic Resistance- Causes, consequences
INO- features and benefits(GS 3 MAINS)
Hyperloop features, applications, potential in bringing transformation in India, problems and way forward
LIGO- Features and potential
Lithium-ion Batteries- significance, applications, challenges and prospects.
Fuel Cell Technology
Drone technology- Applications in different sectors , potential and significance, drone regulation in Indiaprospects and way forward
53 Comprehensive Test(GS 3 MAINS)

Note – List of top 100 topics for Mains 2020 out of above will be given just before the mains examination.(GS 3 MAINS)

Click here to download the above list in PDF format.

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