Internal Displacement of Tribes(GS-1 Exam Synopsis)-2020


GS 1 Current Issues


Introduction Displacement of population or forced migration causes profound economic and cultural disruption to the displaced persons and thereby social fabric of the communities of the area gets completely shattered.
Stats The report Tribal Health in India cites the Census 2011 that found a 32 per cent decline in the number of villages with 100 per cent tribal population between 2001 and 2011.
Why displaced? Developmental projects– dams, airports, highways; forest conservation; mining; internal security; plants.
Impact of displacement Family system, homelessness, joblessness, landlessness, increase in workforce, food insecurity, Access to community property/ common property, social disintegration, health, basic amenities, cultural loss, environmental loss, pollution.
What challenges they face? Socio-economic inequalities, poverty, family system, residence, improper compensation, indebtedness, consumption pattern, skill, income source, culture.
What steps Government has taken? The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006; Right to fair compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013; The Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Area) Act, 1996; The Scheduled castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989; Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980; Saranda Development Plan.
Draft Policy on Tribals The policy seeks to bring Scheduled Tribes into the mainstream of society through a multipronged approach for their all-round development without disturbing their distinct culture. The National Policy aims at addressing each of these problems in a concrete way. It also lists out measures to be taken to preserve and promote tribals’ cultural heritage.
Nehruvian Panchasheel Five principles spelt out in 1952, known as Nehruvian Panchasheel, have been guiding the administration of tribal affairs.
Way forward Review of developmental projects, rehabilitation, compensation, recognizing forest rights, skilling, permanent residence, formal education.


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