|Political parties||Voluntary association of group of individual who shares same political views and want power to gat desired goal [Const. means National Interest].
(i) Reactionary Parties
(Ii) Conservative Parties Leftist, Centrist, Rightist
(Iii) Liberal parties
(iv) Radical parties
|PARTY SYSTEM IN INDIA||The Indian party system has the following characteristic features:
1. One party system – USSR [No opposition]
2. Two Party System – USA & Britain
3. Multi-Party System – Switzerland, Italy, India.
· Size India (inc.)
· Different culture (inc)
· Geo, Bio, Socio, diversity (inc)
· Multiparty system
· After 16th L.S. election, 6 (N.P)
· 47 (S.P) + 1593 unregistered parties
· Though Multiparty system 1947 – 1967 (Single Party dominance in India) –
o Janta Party (1977)
o Janta Dal (1989)
o BJP – (1991)
|Reason||1. No clear cut ideology – quite similar Ideology.
2. Charismatic power of leaders – called asa there are Polical personalities rather than political parties.
3. Base on religious and regional – loose ground at National Level.
|Emergence of Regional Parties||o BKP in Odissa, DMK & AIADMK – TN, Akali Dal Punjab etc. Played a important Role in coalition governments & hence were able to raise National issues.
o But we see deviation in Political Parties like Congress, Janta Dal, and TDP etc. Due to Lust for power & Material consideration. So every time parties disintegrate & Merge.
o Lack of effective opposition – failed to play a constructive Role.
|RECOGNITION OF NATIONAL AND STATE PARTIES||· To remove all the parties are registered for them & were given symbol and recognised as national/state – poll performance.
· Recognition gave benefit such as – symbol, time for political broadcast on TV & Radio + access to electoral Rolls.
· Only one proposer for filling nomination.
· These parties are allowed to have 40 “star campaigners” during the time of elections and the registered–unrecognized parties are allowed to have 20 “star campaigners”.
· The travel expenses of these star campaigners are not included in the election expenditure of the candidates of their parties.
· National Party – Symbol of National party is throughout the country.
· State Party – Symbol of State party is only state.
|Conditions for Recognition as a National Party||1. If it secures 6% of valid votes polled in any four or more states at a general election to the Lok Sabha or to the legislative assembly; and, in addition, it wins four seats in the Lok Sabha from any state or states.
2. If it wins 2% of seats in the Lok Sabha at a general election; and these candidates are elected from three states.
3. If it is recognised as a state party in 4 states.
|Conditions for State Party||1. If it secures 6% of the valid votes polled in the state at a general election and it wins 2 seats in the assembly of the state concerned.
2. If it secures 6% of the valid votes polled in the state at a general election to the L. Sabha from the state concerned & 1 seat in the Lok Sabha from the state concerned.
3. If it wins 3% of seats in the legislative assembly at a general election to the legislative assembly of the state concerned or 3 seats in assembly.
4. If it secures 8% of the total valid votes polled in the state at a General Election.
5. 6 National parties, 47 State parties & 1593 registered-unrecognised parties in the country.
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