Lokpal and Lokayuktas

Democracy & Social Economic development needs Infrastructure.
Infrastructure strengths expansion of bureaucracy Bureaucrats – Maximum power – harassment

·         Malpractice

·         Mall Adm.

·         Corruption- grievance (Inc.) to here it.


Different parts of the world to deal with the redressal of these grievances.

Ombudsman System

Scandinavian Model – Donald C. Rowat – Objectives:

·         Abuse of administrative discretion – misuse of official power and authority

·         Maladministration – inefficiency in achieving the targets

·         Administrative corruption – demanding bribery

·         Nepotism

·         Discourtesy

Many followed

In India Ombudsman – Lokpal

2nd ARC recommended for setting:

a) Lokpal, for hearing grievances, against center & state level.

b) Lokayuktas (1 at center and 1 at state levels) & (ARC) kept it out from purview of judiciary.

LOKPAL Administrative Reforms Commission (ARC) recommended – Appointed by POI after consultation with CJI.
Lokpal & Lokayuktas Act, 2013 Passed in 2013, & received POI ascent 01/01/2014 came into effect 16th Jan 2014.
Features ·         Lokpal at Center, Lokayuktas at state.

·         Lokpal – Chairperson + 8 members (4 from Judiciary an 50% of total sc, sts, minorities women OBC.

·         Chairperson – by 5 member committee (selection committee)

·         PM + sp (LS) + LOP (LS) + CJI or his nominate disputes.

·         Search committee will help selection com.

·         Clear timelines, Preliminary enquiry – 3 months

·         Investigation – 6 months

·         Trail – 1 year.

7 to 10 year punishment

·         Financed by Govt.

·         All entitles receiving donation above 10 Lakhs are under Lokpal.

Drawback ·         Not suo moto/heavy punishment for false complain.

·         Emphasise on complaint.

·         7 year of file complaint

·         Non- transparent nature of complaint against PM.

Lokayuktas Even before the 2013 many state have Lokayuktas

Structure variation – same state have Lokayuktas & other have both Lokayuktas & up- Lokayuktas

Appointment Lokayuktas + UP Lokayuktas – governor

CJ (HC) + LOP (Assembly)

Qualification Some state Judicial & other not mentioned.
Tenure 5 year/ not eligible for reappointment.
Jurisdiction CM + Minister + Local bodies

Excluded in MP, UP, Bihar, RJ, Orissa.

Former ministry & Civil servant in MH.

Investigation Or receiving complain or suo moto but not in UP + MP + Assam.
Scope Grievances + Allegation

MH, UP + Bihar + Karnataka excluded from grievances.

HP, Andhra Pradesh, RJ, GJ.


Lokayuktas – report – Governor – state legislature [explanatory memorandum]

·         Help of state Investing

·         Agency for conducting inquiry

·         Call relevant fines from any binding only advisory in nature.

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