|Introduction||· Term Panchayati Raj – rural local self-governance
· Constitutionalised through 73rd CAA, 1992
|Evolution of Panchayati Raj||1. Balwant Raj Mehta Committee
· Recommended scheme for democratic decentralisation
· Rajasthan was the first state to establish Panchayati Raj – 1959.
· Followed by Andhra Pradesh-1959
2. Ashok Mehta Committee
· Recommended 132 changes to revive the declining PR system
· Three tier system of PR – replaced by two tier system – Zila Parishad at district and Mandal Panchayat below it.
· District should be first point for decentralisation.
· PR institutions have compulsory powers of taxation and managing on finances
· Nyaya panchayats are to be kept separate bodies – preside over by qualified judge.
· Minister for PR to be appointed and state answer of ministers.
· Seats for SC/ST reserved on the basis of population
· Could not be implemented due to the collapse of Janata government
3. GVK Rao Committee
4. L M Singhvi Committee
5. Thungon Committee
6. Gadgil Committee
· Constituted in 1988 – “how best PR institutions could be made effective”
· Constitutional status bestowed on PR.
· Three tier system – Village, block and district levels.
· Fixed term of five years for members – elected directly – reservation for SC/ST/woman
· The state finance commission, State election commission for management
|73rd CAA 1992||· Part 9 to the Constitution – the Panchayats – Article 243 to 243 O
· Landmark in evolution of grassroot democracy.
· Salient Features:
a. Gram Sabha
b. Three tier system
c. Election of members and chairperson
d. Version of seats.
e. Duration of Panchayat fixed.
f. Disqualification prescribed.
g. State election commission.
h. Finance commission – audits and accounts.
|PESA Act, 1996||Provisions of the Panchayats (extensions to the Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996 – Objectives:
· Extend provisions of Part 9 to scheduled areas with certain modifications.
· Self-rule for the bulk of tribal population.
· Safeguard and preserve traditions and customs of tribal communities.
· Empower panchayats for tribal requirement
· Provide village governance with participated democracy
|Reasons for ineffective performance||1. Of adequate devolution.
2. Excessive control of bureaucracy.
3. Tied nature of funds.
4. Overwhelming dependence on government funding.
5. Status of gram Sabha.
6. Creation of parallel bodies.
7. Poor infrastructure
Get all essential Crux notes by clicking here https://diademy.com/product/staticcrux/