|Introduction –||Constitution of India provides for a parliamentary form of government, both at State (Art. 163 & 164) and Centre (Article 74 & 75).|
|Parl. Govt –||Executive is responsible → to the legislature for its policies and acts|
|Presidential system||Not responsible to the legislature for its policies and act|
|Cabinet Govt||Parliamentary government is also known as cabinet government or Responsible Govt.
Responsible Govt →As Cabinet is accountable to Parliament and stays in office so long as it enjoys confidence.
Cabinet Government → Because Cabinet → nucleus of power in a parliamentary system.
|FEATURES OF PARLIAMENTARY GOVERNMENT||1. Nominal & Real Executive
· President is (Nominal&de jure executive)
· PM is Real Executive
· PM head of Govt.
· President head of state
2. Majority Party Rule
· The political party which secures majority seats in the LS forms the government.
· The leader of that party is appointed as the PM by the President;
· Other ministers are appointed by the President on the advice of PM.
· Coalition of party may be invited by President to form Govt when no majority
3. Collective Responsibility (CR)
· Ministers are CR to the Parliament in general &LS in Particular (Art 75).
· Principle implies – LS can remove the ministry (i.e., council of ministers headed by the prime minister) from office by passing a vote of no confidence.
1. Political Homogeneity
· Member of some Political party in coalition, they share the same political ideology.
5. Double Membership
· Ministers are members of both the legislature and the executive.
· Person cannot be a minister without being a member of the Parliament.
· A minister who is not a member of the Parliament for a period of six consecutive months ceases to be a minister.
6. Leadership of the Prime Minister
· Leader of COM
· Leader of Parl.
· Leader of party in power.
7. Dissolution of the Lower House –
· President dissolve the Parl. on recommendation of PM – before the expiry of its term and hold fresh elections
· Ministers operate on – Secrecy of procedure
· Cannot divulge information about their proceedings, policies and decisions.
|Features of Parliamentary System||1. Dual executive.
6. Leadershipofprime Minister
7. Dissolution ofLowerHouse.
|Merits of Parliamentary System||1. Harmony between legislature andexecutive
4. Ready alternative government
|Demerits of Parliamentary System||1. Unstable government
2. No continuity of policies
3. Dictatorship of the Cabinet
4. Against separation of powers
5. Government by Amateurs.
|Features of Presidential System||1. Single executive.
2. President and legislatorselected separately for a fixedterm.
4. Political homogeneity may notexist.
5. Single membership
6. Domination ofpresident.
7. No dissolution of LowerHouse
8. Separation of powers.
|Merits of Presidential System||1. Stablegovernment.
2. Definiteness inpolicies
3. Based on separation ofpowers.
4. Government byexperts
|Demerits of Presidential System||1. Conflict between legislature and executive.
3. May lead toautocracy.
|Reasons for Adopting Parliament system||1. Familiarity with the System
2. Preference to More Responsibility
3. Need to Avoid Legislative—Executive Conflicts
4. Nature of Indian Society
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