Federal System

Federal Govt ·         Dual Govt (i.e. national government and regional government)

·         Written Constitution

·         Division of powers b/w the national and regional govt.

·         Supremacy of the Constitution

·         Rigid Constitution

·         Independent judiciary

·         Bicameral legislature (upper House →Represent states & L. House → represent people of India as whole

Non-Federal Govt or Unitary Government ·         Single Citizenship

·         Constitution – written or unwritten

·         No division of powers – Strong centre →more sub in Upper list

·         Flexible or rigid Constitution

·         Integrated or independent Judiciary

·         Bicameral or unicameral legislature.

Federal feature of Indian Constitution ·         Dual Polity

·         Written Constitution

·         Division of Powers

·         Supremacy of the Constitution

·         Rigid Constitution

·         Independent Judiciary

·         Bicameralism

Unitary features of the Indian Constitution ·         Strong Centre

·         States not indestructible

·         Single citizenship

·         Flexibility of the Constitution

·         No equality of state representation

·         Emergency provisions

·         Single Citizenship

·         Integrated judiciary

·         All India Services

·         Integrated Audit Machinery

·         Parliament’s Authority Over State List

·         Appointment of Governor

·         Integrated Election Machinery

·         Veto Over State Bills

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