Q . The Industrial Revolution began in Europe in general and Britain in particular but changed the economy world over. Comment.   (15 marks, 250 words, GS-1)



  • First para to be about the background of Industrial Revolution.
  • Next para could include details about the Industrial Revolution.
  • Third para could be about the impact.

The Industrial Revolution, which took place from the 18th to 19th centuries, was a period during which predominantly agrarian, rural societies in Europe and America became industrial and urban.

These revolutionary changes were seen in development of new machines, smoke-belching factories, increased productivity and an augmented standard of living. The Industrial Revolution was an era during which principally agrarian, rural societies in Europe and America became industrialised and metropolitan. 

Earlier to the Industrial Revolution, manufacturing was done in homes. People used hand tools or basic machines. Industrialization was observed as a period of shifting to powered, special-purpose machinery, factories and mass production

The iron and textile industries, along with the development of the steam engine, played vital roles in the Industrial Revolution, which also saw advanced systems of transportation, communication and banking.

With industrial revolution, English, European, and American society transformed to a deep level. Everyone was affected in one way or another, peasant and noble, parent and child, artisan and captain of industry. The Industrial Revolution created modern Western society.

This evolution included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, improved efficiency of water power, the increasing use of steam power, and the development of machine tools. 

It also comprised the change from wood and other bio-fuels to coal. Textiles were the foremost industry of the Industrial Revolution as it offers huge employment, value of output and capital invested. It was observed that the textile industry was also the first to use modern production methods.

The Industrial Revolution was a revolutionary experience. It also increased material wealth, extended life, and was a powerful force for social change. And therefore, there was more to the Industrial Revolution than a bunch of machines, it was not only a technological revolution but a social-economic revolution that changed the way people lived afterwards.


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