1. A) Schemes, Policies, Initiatives, Awards and Social Issues
  2. NISHTHA – National Initiative for School Heads’ and Teachers’ Holistic Advancement(PIB)
  3. DigiLocker and India’s Digital Initiatives (PIB)
  4. GOBAR-DHAN (Galvanising Organic Bio-Agro Resources) (PIB)
  5. CHIRAAG – Chhattisgarh Inclusive Rural and Accelerated Agriculture Growth Project (PIB)
  6. Policy for Child Nutrition and Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) scheme (PIB)
  7. Healthcare Scheme for SC/ST Women (PIB)
  8. Dam Rehabilitation and Improvement Project (DRIP) (PIB)
  9. National Water Mission (NWM) and Catch the Rain Awareness Campaign (PIB)
  10. India’s first-ever diesel tractor converted to CNG (PIB)
  11. Empowerment of Women (PIB)
  12. Financial Empowerment of Rural Women (PIB)
  13. Pradhan Mantri Mahila Shakti Kendra Scheme (PMMSKS) (PIB)
  14. B) Art, Culture and History
  15. Sarojini Naidu: The Nightingale of India (PIB)
  16. Shadow puppetry (TH)
  17. C) Polity, Bills, Acts and Judgments
  18. Child Beggars and the Juvenile Justice Act, 2015 (PIB)
  19. D) Miscellaneous
  20. Sagarika: India’s first full-fledged international cruise terminal (PIB)
  21. COVID-19: a notified disaster (PIB)
  22. Control and Regulation of e-Commerce Platform (PIB)


A) Schemes, Policies, Initiatives, Awards and Social Issues

  1. NISHTHA – National Initiative for School Heads’ and Teachers’ Holistic Advancement(PIB)

  • The Department of School Education and Literacy has launched a National Mission to improve learning outcomes at the Elementary level through an Integrated Teacher Training Programme called NISHTHA – National Initiative for School Heads’ and Teachers’ Holistic Advancementunder the Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Samagra Shiksha in 2019-20.
  • The aim of this training is to motivate and equip teachers to encourage and foster critical thinking in students, handle diverse situations and act as first level counsellors.
  • It stands for National Initiative for School Heads’ and Teachers’ Holistic Advancement (NISHTHA).
  • It is an initiative of the Education Ministry and is “the world’s largest teacher training programme”.
  • Under this programme, more than 42 lakh teachers and principals of primary and elementary-age government schools across the country will undergo a five-day training programme over the next few months to learn innovative teaching methods, the use of art and technology in the classroom and basic counselling techniques.
  • In the same manner, more than 1 million higher education teachers will be trained under ARPIT (Annual Refresher Programme in Teaching) programme.
  • Vigyangranth- the PhD Thesis Repository has been launched which is a joint initiative of Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, India (AcSIR) and Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India (CSIR).
  1. DigiLocker and India’s Digital Initiatives (PIB)

  • Context: IRDAI (Insurance Regulatory Authority of India) has advised all Insurance companies for issuance of Digital Insurance Policies via DigiLocker.


  • Digilocker,the National Digital Locker System, is an initiative under the Digital India program by the Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology (MeitY) Government of India where citizens can get authentic documents/ certificate in digital format from original issuers of these certificates.
  • It aims at eliminating or minimising the use of physical documents and will enhance effectiveness of service delivery, making these hassle free and friendly for the citizens.


  • In the insurance sector, Digilocker will drive:
  • reduction in costs,
  • elimination of customer complaints relating to non-delivery of policy copy,
  • improved turn around time of insurance services,
  • faster claims processing and settlement,
  • reduction in disputes,
  • reduction in fraud and
  • improvement in customer contactability.

India’s Digital Initiatives


  • Targeted at the idea of paperless governance, DigiLocker,the National Digital Locker System, is a platform for issuance and verification of documents & certificates in a digital way, thus eliminating the use of physical documents.
  • Indian citizens who sign up for a DigiLocker account get a dedicated cloud storage space that is linked to their Aadhaar (UIDAI) number.
  • Organizations that are registered with Digital Locker can push electronic copies of documents and certificates (e.g. driving license, Voter ID, School certificates) directly into citizens lockers.
  • Citizens can also upload scanned copies of their legacy documents in their accounts.
  • 256 Bit SSL Encryption:DigiLocker uses 256 bit secure socket layer (SSL) Encryption for information transmitted during any activity.
  • DigiLocker now allows citizens to access their digital Aadhaar. What is digital Aadhaar? Is it the same as the eAadhaar issued by UIDAI?
  • Digital Aadhaar in DigiLocker is the same as eAadhaar issued by UIDAI. DigiLocker has partnered with UIDAI to make it available automatically to its users when they link their DigiLocker account with Aadhaar.
  • The advantage of digital Aadhaar is that it can now be used in the same way as any other DigiLocker document.
  • The platform has the following benefits:
  • Citizens can access their digital documents anytime, anywhere and share it online.
  • It reduces the administrative overhead of Government departments by minimizing the use of paper.
  • Digital Locker makes it easier to validate the authenticity of documents as they are issued directly by the registered issuers.
  • Self-uploaded documents can be digitally signed using the eSign facility (which is similar to the process of self-attestation).

Twitter Samvad

  • Twitter Samvad enables any Indian with a mobile device to receive real-time info from their political leaders and government organizations.
  • A simple missed call to an assigned phone number for each government partner means you will be able to receive each Tweet from the partner as an SMS, even if you are offline.
  • Since Samvad is built on the technology of ZipDial, an Indian company, this is truly a locally-developed initiative.
  • People who sign up will receive a set of curated Tweets based on the highest engagement throughout the day to stay up-to-date with real-time information about government-related news, policies and activities.
  • And you can use Twitter Samvad during emergency situations to receive live updates from government bodies, such as time-sensitive information and details about rescue efforts.

India Stack

  • IndiaStack is a set of APIs (application program interface) that allows governments, businesses, startups and developers to utilise a unique digital Infrastructure to solve India’s hard problems towards presence-less, paperless, and cashless service delivery.

India stack provides 4 distinct technology layers

  • Presenceless layer: Where a universal biometric digital identity allows people to participate in any service from anywhere in the country
  • Paperless layer: Where digital records move with an individual’s digital identity, eliminating the need for massive amount of paper collection and storage
  • Cashless layer: Where a single interface to all the country’s bank accounts and wallets to democratize payments
  • Consent layer: Which allows data to move freely and securely to democratize the market for data

APIs included in India Stack

  • The following APIs are considered to be a core part of the India Stack.
  • Aadhaar Authentication
  • Aadhaar e-KYC
  • eSign
  • Digital Locker
  • Unified Payment Interface (UPI)
  • Digital User Consent – still work in progress.
  • The following APIs are also considered to be societal platforms built on similar principles like India Stack:
  • GSTN – The Goods and Services Tax Network
  • BBPS – The Bharat Bill Payment System
  • ETC – Electronic Toll Collection (known under the brand FASTag)
  • Digital India aims to provide the much-needed thrust to the nine pillars of growth areas, namely
  • Broadband Highways,
  • Universal Access to Mobile Connectivity,
  • Public Internet Access Programme,
  • e-Governance: Reforming Government through Technology,
  • e-Kranti – Electronic Delivery of Services,
  • Information for All,
  • Electronics Manufacturing,
  • IT for Jobs
  • Early Harvest Programmes.
  1. GOBAR-DHAN (Galvanising Organic Bio-Agro Resources) (PIB)

  • The Department of Drinking Water & Sanitation, Ministry of Jal Shakti, has launched the GOBAR-DHAN (Galvanising Organic Bio-Agro Resources) scheme in 2020 to convert cattle dung and solid waste in farms to Compressed Bio-Gas (CBG) and compost.
  • The programme will be funded under Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) component of Swachh Bharat MissionGramin(SBM-G) to benefit households in identified villages through Gram Panchayats. 
  • The objective of the scheme is to increase rural income, rural jobs and to keep villages clean through solid waste management.
  • Accordingly, this scheme aims to positively impact the Gram Panchayats with 3Es, which are as following:
  • Energy: Self-reliance with respect to energy through utilization of agricultural and animal waste to generate bio-energy through bio-gas plants.
  • Empowerment: Engaging rural people, especially women self-help groups in construction, management and day to day operations of biogas plants.
  • Employment: Generating jobs among the rural youth and women through collection of waste, transportation to treatment plants, management of treatment plant, sale and distribution of biogas generated, etc.
  • The scheme is intended to manage and convert cattle dung and solid waste in farms to compost, bio-slurry, bio-gas and bio-CNG.
  • For further details, refer to 29th Nov file.
  1. CHIRAAG – Chhattisgarh Inclusive Rural and Accelerated Agriculture Growth Project (PIB)

  • The Government of India, the Government of Chhattisgarh and the World Bank today signed a $100 million project to develop sustainable production systems that allow tribal households in remote areas of Chhattisgarh to practice round-the-year production of diversified and nutritious food.
  • CHIRAAG – Chhattisgarh Inclusive Rural and Accelerated Agriculture Growth Project will be implemented in the southern tribal-majority region of the state where a large population is undernourished and poor.
  1. Policy for Child Nutrition and Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) scheme (PIB)

  1. Healthcare Scheme for SC/ST Women (PIB)

  • “Public Health and Hospitals” being a State subject, the primary responsibility to provide quality healthcare in public healthcare facilities including to SC/ST category women and their children lies with the respective State Governments.
  • To address the healthcare challenges, particularly in rural areas, the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) was launched in 2005 to supplement the efforts of the State/UT Governments to provide accessible, affordable and quality healthcare to all those who access public health facilities. Currently, NRHM is a sub-mission of National Health Mission (NHM).
  • The States are given flexibility to propose specific interventions for SC/ST areas and beneficiaries including for women and their children.
  • Other major initiatives supported under NHM include Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram (JSSK) (under free drugs, free diagnostics, free blood and diet, free transport from home to institution, between facilities in case of a referral and drop back home is provided), Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram (RSSK) (which provides newborn and child health screening and early interventions services free of cost for primary defects, diseases, deficiencies and developmental delays to improve the quality of survival), Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan (PMSMA) to improve coverage of ANC and improved identification and tracking of high risk pregnancies and Mission Indradhanush (MI) and Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI) in improving immunisation coverage.

Various interventions that are implemented for better healthcare in SC/ST areas and beneficiaries are as follows:

  • The population norms for setting up Health Facilities in tribal areas are relaxed.
  • Against the population norms of 5,000, 30,000, and 1,20,000 for setting up of Sub Centre, PHC and CHC respectively, in tribal and desert areas its 3,000, 20,000 and 80,000.
  • Relaxed norms for Mobile Medical Units (MMUs).
  • All tribal majority districts whose composite health index is below the State average have been identified as High Priority Districts (HPDs) and these districts receive more resources per capita under the National Health Mission (NHM) as compared to the rest of the districts in a State.
  • Implementation of Free Drugs and Free Diagnostics Service Initiatives.
  • SC/ST households are covered under Ayushman Bharat, Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (AB-PMJAY) for health coverage up to Rs 5 Lakh per family per year as per Socio Economic Caste Census (SECC).
  1. Dam Rehabilitation and Improvement Project (DRIP) (PIB)

  • Water is a state subject and water resources projects are planned, executed and maintained by respective State Governments from their own resources and as per their requirements and priorities.
  • The role of the Central Government is limited to supplement the efforts of the State Governments by providing technical guidance and central assistance through its various schemes, if specifically sought by the State Government.
  • Central Water Commission (CWC) compiles and maintains nation-wide register of Large Dams i.e. National Register of Large Dams (NRLD), as per information provided by dam owners.
  • Under National Register of Large Dams (NRLD), CWC does not maintain the data of cost of construction of dams.
  • Responsibility for safety, conservation and protection of dams primarily lies with Dam Owners who are State Govts, Central and State PSUs and some private players.
  • National Committee on Dam Safety (NCDS) is an advisory body which suggests ways to bring dam safety activities in line with the latest advancements in the field, suitably modified for Indian conditions and acts as a forum for exchange of views on techniques adopted for remedial measures to relieve distress in old dams.
  • In the ongoing Dam Rehabilitation and Improvement Project (DRIP), there is a need-based provision for partner agencies to restore the lost capacity of few selected dams.
  • Under DRIP, Central Water Commission (CWC) has published “Handbook for Assessing and Managing Reservoir Sedimentation” and recommends dam owners to follow this handbook.
  • India ranks third globally with 5334 large dams in operation and about 411 are under construction. In addition, there are several thousand smaller dams.
  • The World Bank assisted Dam Rehabilitation and Improvement Project (DRIP) project originally envisaged the rehabilitation and improvement of 223 dam projects in four states namely, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, and Tamil Nadu. Later Karnataka, Uttarakhand (UJVNL) and Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC) joined the DRIP.
  • Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) has approved the next Phase of DRIP i.e. DRIP Phase II and Phase III in October 2020.
  • The Scheme envisages comprehensive rehabilitation of 736 dams located in 19 States and 3 Central Agencies and entails financial assistance from the World Bank (WB) and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).
  • It is a State Sector Scheme with Central component, with duration of 10 years, to be implemented in two Phases i.e. Phase-II and Phase-III, each of six years duration with an overlap of two years.
  1. National Water Mission (NWM) and Catch the Rain Awareness Campaign

  1. India’s first-ever diesel tractor converted to CNG (PIB)

  • Union Minister for Road Transport and Highways launched country’s first-ever diesel tractor converted to CNG.
  • The Minister said, CNG is a Clean Fuel, as it has the lowest content of carbon and other pollutants.
  • It is economical as it has zero lead and is non-corrosive, non-dilutive and non-contaminating which helps in increasing the life of the engine and it requires less regular maintenance.
  • It is cheaper as CNG prices are far more consistent than fluctuating Petrol prices; also the average mileage of CNG vehicles is better than that of Diesel/Petrol driven vehicles.
  • It is safer as CNG tanks come with a tight seal, which reduces the possibility of explosion while refuelling or in the event of a spill.
  • It is also part of Waste to Wealth movement, as stubble (Parali) can be used as a raw material for producing Bio-CNG which will help the farmers to earn more.
  1. Empowerment of Women (PIB)

  • Government gives utmost priority to ensuring gender equality in all spheres of life and has taken several steps to ensure that women do not face any gender-based disadvantage.
  • Some of the steps taken by the Government in this direction as well as for increasing the participation of women in the economy include the following:
  • Mahila Shakti Kendra Scheme:The scheme aims to facilitate inter-sectoral convergence of schemes and programs meant for empowerment of women both at the central and State/UT level.
  • SwadharGreh Scheme:The Scheme caters to women victims of unfortunate circumstances in need of institutional support for rehabilitation, so that they can lead their life with dignity.
  • Ujjawala Scheme: It is a comprehensive scheme for prevention of trafficking of women and children for commercial sexual exploitation, as well as for facilitating rescue, rehabilitation and re-integration of victims in to their families and society as needed.
  • Working Women’s Hostel Scheme: This scheme promotes availability of safe and conveniently located accommodation for working women, with day care facility for their children, wherever possible, in urban, semi-urban, and even rural areas, where employment opportunities for women exist.
  • Indira Gandhi National Widow Pension Scheme:Under this scheme, widow pension is provided to the widows belonging to Below Poverty Line (BPL) households. This is a sub-scheme under National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP) of Ministry of Rural Development. Under the scheme, Central assistance @ Rs. 300/- per month is provided to widows in the age-group of 40-79 years and the pension amount is enhanced to Rs 500/- per month on attaining 80 years.
  1. Financial Empowerment of Rural Women (PIB)

  • The details of ongoing scheme launched by the Government of India for the financial empowerment of rural women are as follows:

Initiatives of Department of Financial Services (DFS) under the Ministry of Finance:

  • DFS has six schemes namely for financial inclusion and entrepreneurship development of people across the country including that of women:
  • Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana (PMJDY),
  • Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana (PMJJBY),
  • Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana (PMSBY),
  • Atal Pension Yojana (APY),
  • Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana (PMMY) and
  • Stand-Up India (SUPI)

Initiatives of Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME):

  • Benefits are extended to women under Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Programme (PMEGP), which is a major scheme of MSME.
  • The scheme facilitates generation of self-employment opportunities through establishment of micro-enterprises in the non-farm sector by helping traditional artisans and unemployed youth.

Initiatives of Ministry of Rural Development

  • Ministry of Rural Development is implementing two welfare schemes in the field of skill development for rural poor youth under the National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM) for gainful employment and to eradicate poverty in the country as follows:
  • Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana (DDU-GKY) which is a placement linked skill development program for wage employment.
  • Skill development through Rural Self Employment and Training Institutes (RSETIs) enabling a trainee to take bank credit and start his/her own micro-enterprise.
  • Both DDU-GKY and RSETI schemes are applicable to all the categories including women.
  1. Pradhan Mantri Mahila Shakti Kendra Scheme (PMMSKS) (PIB)

  • The Ministry of Women and Child Development approved implementation of Mahila Shakti Kendra Scheme on 22ndNovember, 2017.
  • Mahila Shakti Kendra (MSK) is a sub-scheme under the Umbrella Scheme Pradhan Mantri Mahila Shashaktikaran Yojana (PMMSY).
  • The Scheme will provide an interface for rural women to approach the government for availing their entitlements and for empowering them through awareness generation, training and capacity building.
  • The scheme envisages community engagement through college student volunteers in aspirational districts, as well as setting up of District Level Centres for Women (DLCWs) and State Resource Centres for Women (SRCWs) to support the implementation of women centric schemes/programs and to function as Project Management Units for Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Scheme.
  • The challenges faced while implementing the scheme include non-availability of college faculty members/ colleges in certain Blocks in aspirational districts, and difficulties in engaging student volunteers.
  • Under Mahila Shakti Kendra Scheme, District Level Centres for women are approved for all districts as per Census of India, 2011.

B) Art, Culture and History

13. Sarojini Naidu: The Nightingale of India (PIB)

  • Context: The 141stbirth anniversary of Sarojini Naidu also known as Nightingale of India/ Bharat Kokila, a doyen of Indian Independence movement, is being celebrated on 13th February, 2021.


  • Sarojini Naidu was eventually drawn towards Indian National Congress’ movement to liberate India from the British.
  • She went on to become a follower of Mahatma Gandhi and was subsequently appointed President of the Indian National Congress in 1925 (the first Indian woman to become President of the Congress).
  • She accompanied Gandhi to London for the inconclusive second session of the Round Table Conferencein 1931.
  • In 1942, while Gandhi was leading the Quit India Movement, the British government imprisoned her for almost two years.
  • Presenting the National Flag to the House on behalf of the women of India, Srimati Hansa Mehta said: “In the absence of Srimati Sarojini Naidu, it is my proud privilege on behalf of the women of India to present this flag to the nation through you.
  • After India gained independence in 1947, Naidu was appointed as the governor of the United Provinces, which is today known as Uttar Pradesh.
  • With her appointment, she became India’s first woman governor.
  • From 1906 onwards, Jinnah propagated the theme of national unity in the meetings that he addressed, earning from Sarojini Naidu the title ‘Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity.’
  • Sarojini Naidu was also known for her literary prowess and in 1914 she was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of Literature.
  • Sarojini Naidu otherwise known as The Nightingale of India earned this nickname for herself because of her contribution to poetry.
  • The birth anniversary of Naidu is celebrated as National Women’s Day in India.

  1. Shadow puppetry (TH)

  • Tholpavakkoothu or shadow puppetry is a traditional temple art in Kerala.
  • It is used to be performed in the Bhadrakali temples of Palakkad, telling tales from the Ramayana.
  • The narrative used for the performance is a mixture of prose and poetry called Adalpattu.
  • The puppetry is staged on a special structure in temple premises called Koothumadam.
  • Togalu Gombeyatta is the shadow theatre of Karnataka is known as Togalu Gombeyatta.
  • The puppets differ in size according to their social status, for instance, large size for kings and religious characters and smaller size for common people or servants.
  • Tholu Bommalata is Andhra Pradesh’s shadow theatre and has the richest and strongest tradition.
  • Ravanachhaya is the most theatrical shadow puppetry and is a popular form of entertainment in the Odisha
  • They do not have any joints attached to them, making it a more complex art.
  • Use of non-human puppets such as trees and animals is common.

 C) Polity, Bills, Acts and Judgments

15.Child Beggars and the Juvenile Justice Act, 2015 (PIB)

  • The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015 (JJ Act) is the primary law for children in the country.
  • A child who is found working in contravention of labour laws for the time being in force or is found begging, or living on the street is included as a “child in need of care and protection”, among others, under the JJ Act, 2015.
  • The Ministry implements a centrally sponsored scheme i.e. Child Protection Services (CPS) under the umbrella Integrated Child Development Services scheme, for supporting the children in difficult circumstances including child beggars and destitute children.
  • Under the scheme, institutional care is provided through Child Care Institutions (CCIs), as a rehabilitative measure.
  • The programmes and activities in CCIs inter-alia include age-appropriate education, access to vocational training, recreation, health care, counseling etc.

Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015 (JJ Act)

  • The Act seeks to achieve the objectives of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Children as ratified by India in December 1992 and repeals the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000.
  • Who is a juvenile as recognised by law?In the Indian context, a juvenile or child is any person who is below the age of 18 years.  However, the Indian Penal Code specifies that a child cannot be charged for any crime until he has attained seven years of age.

Key provisions

  • Change in nomenclature from ‘juvenile’ to ‘child’ or ‘child in conflict with law’, across the Act to remove the negative connotation associated with the word “juvenile”
  • The Act mandates setting up Juvenile Justice Boards and Child Welfare Committees in every district. Both must have at least one woman member each.
  • Special provisions for heinous offences committed by children above the age of sixteen years.
  • The Juvenile Justice Board is given the option to transfer cases of heinous offences by such children to a Children’s Court (Court of Session) after conducting preliminary assessment.
  • To streamline adoption procedures for orphan, abandoned and surrendered children, the existing Central Adoption Resource Authority (CARA) is given the status of a statutory body to enable it to perform its function more effectively.
  • As per the provisions, a single or divorced person can also adopt, but a single male cannot adopt a girl child.
  • Several new offences committed against children, which are so far not adequately covered under any other law, are included in the Act. These include:
  • sale and procurement of children for any purpose including illegal adoption,
  • corporal punishment in child care institutions,
  • use of child by militant groups,
  • offences against disabled children and,
  • kidnapping and abduction of children.
  • Penalties for cruelty against a child, offering a narcotic substance to a child, and abduction or selling a child have been prescribed.
  • Any official, who does not report an abandoned or orphaned child within 24 hours, is liable to imprisonment up to six months or fine of Rs 10,000 or both.
  • The penalty for non-registration of child care institutions is imprisonment up to one year or fine of one lakh rupees, or both.
  • Under Section 36 of the JJ Act, 2015 Child Welfare Committees are expected to submit quarterly reports to the District Magistrate regarding pendency and nature of disposal of cases.
  • The District Magistrate is expected to conduct quarterly review of the Child Welfare Committees and direct remedial measures to address the pendency.
  • Offences have been categorized as petty/ serious/ heinous offences.
  • (i) a heinous offence is an offence that attracts a minimum penalty of seven years imprisonment under any existing law,
  • (ii) a serious offence is one that gets imprisonment between three to seven years and,
  • (iii) a petty offence is penalized with up to three years imprisonment.
  • Children in the age group of 16 – 18 years may be tried as adults in cases of heinous offences after preliminary assessment by the Juvenile Justice Board.
  • The decision whether the child is to be released or sent to jail after attaining the age of 21 years will be taken by the Children‘s Court.

What does the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) say? What are the obligations on the signatory nations?

  • The UNCRC was ratified by India in 1992 and the 2000 Act was consequently brought in to adhere to the standards set by the Convention.
  • The UNCRC states that signatory countries should treat every child under the age of 18 years in the same manner and not try them as adults.
  • While the 2000 Act complies with this requirement, the 2015 Act does not.  However, many other countries who have also ratified the Convention try juveniles as adults, in case of certain crimes.  These countries include the UK, France, Germany, etc.
  • The United States is not a signatory to the UNCRC and also treats juveniles as adults in case of certain crimes.

Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Amendment Act, 2018

  • The government recently amended the Juvenile Justice (JJ) Act, 2015, to empower District Magistrates with the authority to grant adoption orders.
  • It will make the adoption procedure faster for prospective parents, by avoiding delays in courts.
  • The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Amendment Act, 2018, replaces the word “court” by “District Magistrate.”
  • The changes are applicable for both domestic and international applications.

Habeas Corpus

  • It means ‘to have the body of’.
  • It is an order issued by the court to a person who has detained another person, to produce the body of the latter before it.
  • The court then examines the cause and legality of detention.
  • It would set the detained person free, if the detention is found to be illegal.
  • It is a bulwark of individual liberty against arbitrary detention.
  • The writ of habeas corpus can be issued against both public authorities as well as private individuals.
  • The writ, on the other hand, is not issued where the:
  • Detention is lawful;
  • The proceeding is for contempt of a legislature or a court;
  • Detention is by a competent court; and
  • Detention is outside the jurisdiction of the court.

D) Miscellaneous

16.Sagarika: India’s first full-fledged international cruise terminal (PIB)

  • Prime Minister will soon inaugurate the International Cruise Terminal “Sagarika” at Cochin Port. Situated at the Ernakulam Wharf on Willingdon Island, it is India’s first full-fledged international cruise terminal.
  • It will promote tourism, give a fillip to development and will act as an effective instrument for employment generation, earning revenue and foreign exchange.
  • The terminal gains importance, since the number of cruise ships visiting Kochi has been on the rise, considering the port’s proximity to the international shipping route.
  1. COVID-19: a notified disaster (PIB)

  • The Central Government, by keeping in view the spread of COVID-19 virus in India and the declaration of COVID-19 as pandemic by the World Health Organization, by way of a special onetime dispensation, has decided to treat it as a notified disaster for the purpose of providing assistance under State Disaster Response Fund (SDRF) for 2019-20 and 2020-21.
  1. Control and Regulation of e-Commerce Platform (PIB)

  • Considering the cross-cutting nature of e-Commerce, different laws and regulations across sectors govern the present e-Commerce activities, some of which are; Consumer Protection Act, 2019, Finance Act 2020, Information Technology Act, 2000, Foreign Exchange Management Act, 2000 and Competition Act, 2002.


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