MEDIEVAL INDIAN HISTORY
CHP 1: INDIA & THE WORLD
Manor = the house where the landlord lived. Serfs had to cultivate the lands surrounding the manor and give a part of the produce to the landlord. The landlord was tasked with dispensing justice and maintaining law and order. This system disappeared from Western Europe after 14th century.
|Islam united warring Arab tribes into a powerful empire.
• Al-Hajjajj, the Governor of Iraq sent Muhammad-bin-Qasim to India
• He conquered Sind with the permission of Caliph Walid
Battle of Reward
• Fought between Muhammad-bin-Qasim and Dahir the ruler of Sind
• Dahir was defeated.
• Muhammad-bin-Qasim called Multan as ‘The City of Gold’
• Sind and Multan were divided into a number of Iqtas or districts by Muhammad-bin-Qasim and Arab military officers headed the Iqtas.
• The sub-divisions of the districts were administered by the local Hindu Officers.
• Jizya was imposed on non-Muslims.
Muhammad bin Qasim’s Army
• 25,000 troops with 6000 Camels, 6000 Syrian horses, 3000 Bactrian Camels and an artillery force with 2000 men, advanced guards, and five catapults.
End of Muhammad-bin-Qasim
• Caliph Walid was succeeded by Caliph Sulaiman.
• He was an enemy of Al-Hajjaj, the Governor of Iraq.
• Muhammad-bin Qasim was the son-in-law of Al-Hajjaj, so he dismissed him and sent to Mesopotamia as a prisoner where he was tortured to death. For more than 150 years, Sind and Multan continued to remain as the part of the Caliph’s Empire.
Rani Bai’s heroic defense against Muhammad bin Qasim
• The wife of Dahir and the other women of Sind put up a heroic defense within the Fort of Rewar.
• The subjugation of Sind made way for Islam into India.
• The art of administration, astronomy, music, painting, medicine and architecture were learnt by Arabs from our land and they spread astronomy, Indian Philosophy, and numerals to Europe.
Europe stagnated due to rigid views of Catholic church. India also did not progress much. Arab science declined after 14th century due to growing orthodoxy and other political developments.
|1. China: attained climax in 8th and 9th centuries under Tang dynasty. Exported countless goods to the West through Silk Route. Tangs were replaced by Sung dynasty in 10th century and then growing weakness led to the Mongol invasion in13th century. Mongols unified north and south china with help of highly disciplined and mobile cavalry. They also ruled over Vietnam and Korea for some time. Marco Polo spent some time at the court of famous Mongol ruler Kublai Khan. Visited Malabar on his way back to Italy by sea.
Temples in the above-mentioned locations had panels containing scenes from Ramayana and Mahabharat. These were also the inspiration for literature, folk dances, songs, puppets and statues. Temple building here coincided with temple building in India. Buddhism declined in India and flourished here. Buddha was brought into Hinduism later in India whereas Hindu Gods were brought under Buddhist fold in SE Asia.
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CHP 2. NORTHERN INDIA: MEDIEVAL INDIAN HISTORY
|The Medieval Indian History period lies between the 8th and the 18th century A.D. Ancient Indian history came to an end with the rule of Harsha and Pulakesin II. The medieval period can be divided into two stages:
|PALAS(MEDIEVAL INDIAN HISTORY)
|PRATIHARAS (MEDIEVAL INDIAN HISTORY)
|The Pratiharas were also called as Gurjara. They ruled between 8th and 11th century A.D. over northern and western India.
Pratiharas: A fortification- The Pratiharas stood as a fortification of India’s defense against the hostility of the Muslims from the days of Junaid of Sind (725.A.D.) to Mahmud of Ghazni.
Founder of the Pratihara dynasty with Kanauj as it’s capital.
Played a vital role in merging the empire.
|RASHTRAKUTAS (MEDIEVAL INDIAN HISTORY)
The administrative system was based on Gupta empire, Harsha’s kingdom in the north and Chalukyas in the Deccan.
|TERRITORIAL DIVISIONS : MEDIEVAL INDIAN HISTORY
|PALAS & PRATIHARAS
Bhukti > Visaya > Pattala
|IN RASHTRAKUTA EMPIRE
Rashtra > Visaya > Bhukti.
|VILLAGE was placed below these administrative units. Its administration was carried out by village headman whose posts were hereditary. They were paid by rent-free land grants.
Headman was helped by village elders = gram-mahajan OR gram-Mahattara.
Law and order responsibility = koshta-pala = kotwal
Hereditary revenue officers in Deccan = nad-gavundas or desa-gramakutas.
State was essentially secular. Kings were worshippers of Shiva, Vishnu, Jainism and Buddhism but they never persecuted non-followers and patronized all religions equally.