UPSC Mains Question Paper Of GS3 Macro Economy-(IAS Mains)Civil Services-2020


  1. “Access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy is the sine qua non to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)”.Comment on the progress made in India in this regard. (150 Words, 10 Marks)  
  2. What are the impediments in disposing of the huge quantities of discarded solid wastes which are continuously being generated? How do we remove safely the toxic wastes that have been accumulating in our habitable environment? (150 Words, 10 Marks) 
  3. How are the principles followed by NITI Aayog different from those followed by the erstwhile planning commission in India?(250 Words, 15 Marks)
  4. Normally countries shift from agriculture to industry and then later to services, but India shifted directly from agriculture to services. What are the reasons for the huge growth of services vis-a-vis industry in the country? Can India become a developed country without a strong industrial base?
  5. There is a clear acknowledgment that Special Economic Zones (SEZs) are a tool of industrial development, 


Manufacturing and exports. Recognizing this potential, the whole instrumentality of SEZs requires augmentation. Discuss the issues plaguing the success of SEZs with respect to taxation, governing laws and administration.

  1. While we found India’s demographic dividend, we ignore the dropping rates of employability. What are we missing while doing so? Where will the jobs that India desperately needs come from? Explain.
  2. Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) is necessary for bringing unbanked to the institutional finance fold. Do you agree with this for the financial inclusion of the poorer section of Indian society? Give arguments to justify your opinion.
  3. The industrial growth rate has lagged behind in the overall growth of Gross-Domestic-Product(GDP) in the post-reform period” Give reasons. How far the recent changes is Industrial Policy are capable of increasing the industrial growth rate?
  4. The real estate industry in India is facing a variety of challenges. How far the Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act, 2016 can help in this context. Give your suggestions to improve the status of real sector in India
  5. In a globalized world, intellectual property rights assume significance and are a source of litigation. Broadly discuss various advantages that National IPR Policy,2016 can offer and what are the major obstacles that are being faced on the path of its success.
  6. Oil and gas exploration sector is critical for satisfying the energy needs of India. How Hydrocarbon Exploration and Licensing Policy (HELP),2016 can help in strengthening Oil and gas exploration sector? What are the various issues being faced in its effective implementation? Also, give NITI Aayog recommendations regarding oil and gas exploration.
  7. Not many years ago, financial inclusion was a concept but it is becoming reality in the country. Discuss various government initiatives in the past and present times taken in this regard. Also discuss major challenges still faced by India on the path of complete financial inclusion.
  8. Justify the need for “National Electric Mobility Mission Project”. Why there is gap between our targets and actual success in the e-vehicles sector? Suggest remedial steps to be taken in this regard in India.
  9. ‘Severe underemployment’ and not unemployment is a more serious problem in India. Discuss with logical arguments 
  10. The risk landscape for banks in India has undergone a major change over the last few years. How does the Non-Performing Assets (NPA) Crisis impact the Indian economy? To what extent Project Sashakt can solve the troubles in India’s banking sector? 
  11. Relatively strong GDP growth cannot in itself be relied on to generate inclusive socio-economic progress and broad-based improvement in living standards. Do you agree with this view? Bring out the challenges to inclusive growth in India? 
  12. With the slowing of the economy, there is a danger of a demographic dividend turning into a demographic disaster. In this context, evaluate the measures taken by Government to reap India’s demographic dividend? 
  13. “Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) Act, 2003 needs modification to provide fiscal policy direction for the India of tomorrow.” Discuss 
  14. Although the government’s rural electrification data shows that electricity has reached all villages in India, all households in the villages have not come out of the darkness. Examine. Discuss the significance of the ‘Saubhagya Scheme’ and related challenges in this context.
  15. With increasing pressure on Indian roads and railways wherein not only the passenger traffic but the freight traffic is majorly transported via these two mediums, do you think National waterways could provide a workable and a more efficient and effective solution for the freight transportation? Examine
  16. ‘Taxation is not just about financing public spending; it is the economic glue that binds citizens to the state in a necessary two-way relationship‘. Elaborate.

How in your opinion can the government increase the existing Tax Base?(GS 3 Macro Economy)

  1. Inequality in India poses a multitude of threats. What are the causes of Inequality in India? Explain various adverse impacts of inequality. Give some suggestions to overcome this problem. (15 Marks, 250 Words)
  2. India has a vast potential to reap a demographic dividend. Explain the point and discuss the necessary measures to realize it ? (15 Marks, 250 Words)
  3. India must adopt an energy system with a sustainable mix of energy sources providing a balance between conventional and non-conventional. Discuss in the context of new energy policy of the Government of India. (10 marks, 150 words)

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