Q.The period after independence came with different sets of problems and issues that no one thought of. Examine what were the challenges that emerged in India.(15 marks, 250 words, GS-1, Post-Independence)



The challenges faced include-


  • Nation building- integration, consolidation and reorganization– as there were many princely states at the time of independence and several autonomous regions which were to be united to form the Indian Union
  • acceptance of democratic values– as population at that time was mostly illiterate and hence to make them understand democracy was the tough task
  • political literacy- to population which were illiterate, so making them understand the political motives, processes, symbols, etc. was quite difficult
  • mass political participation– to bring all in the political mainstream and to make them heard in the political planning and accommodating different ideologies
  • overcoming regional and separatist tendencies– as regional aspirations too emerged with the partition and the regional imbalances, cultural and ethnic diversity paved way for the secessionists tendencies to strengthened
  • bringing tribals in Indian society– as they were mostly isolated from the societal mainstream and to prosper them with the growth and development of the nation


  • Growth– to have a sound industrial base and agriculture to secure high growth rate for generating resources for further investment in infrastructure and industrialization.
  • Development– to provide basic living to the large population, poverty alleviation, health services to the poor, reducing IMR, MMR, etc.
  • Employment– to large section of population who are mostly unskilled and uneducated due to deindustrialization and discriminatory educational system in favour of English.
  • financial inclusion– to provide basic banking and credit facility to the large population so that awareness about savings increases and to access credit for economic development and growth and contributing further in nation development.
  • Industrialization– as a result of Industrial Revolution, Indian industries were diminished making large section either unemployed or landless labourers, and it was also envisaged that industrialization is prerequisite for further economic and human development.


  • Accepting diversity– as the culture and rituals varied after few miles and hence to integrate such diversity and differences was a tough task
  • social cohesion– as Indian society had been a Class-divided society where profession and birth gave way for the discrimination
  • imbibing secular values– so that to respect each other’s’ religion and to celebrate the diversity
  • modernizing society– to impart modern values of polity, scientific temper, etc. in a large population which was illiterate
  • acceptance of scientific values and temper– as around 84% of the population was illiterate and could be easily influenced
  • preservation of national heritage and culture & tradition– India possessed large number of natural heritage but were linked to religion, hence there was a fear of damage by non-state actors in case not preserved and the community is not sensitized.







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