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Crimes Against Women In India(GS-1Exam Synopsis)2020-21(UPSC)

There were 3,78,277 cases of crimes against women in 2018, up by 7% from 3,59,849 in 2017.

Exam Synopsis:

Introduction In many parts of our country, women are still considered to be burdensome, Discrimination begins at birth or even before it and continues till she is dead.
Stats The majority of crimes against women were under ‘Cruelty by Husband or His Relatives’ (31.9%) followed by ‘Assault on Women with Intent to Outrage her Modesty’ (27.6%), ‘Kidnapping & Abduction of Women’ (22.5%) and ‘Rape’ (10.3%).
Crimes include As recognized by NCRB– Rape; Kidnapping & abduction of women; Dowry; Assault on women with intent to outrage her modesty; Insult to modesty; Cruelty by Husband or relatives; Trafficking; Sati.

Others– Eve teasing; Asking for the favour.

Reasons behind crimes against women Social Causes– Inferior status of women due to social conditioning; Patriarchal structure of society; Too much interference by the parents; Too stick a discipline; Alcohol; Immorality; Cruelty; Addiction to drugs

Psychological causes-; Role; Separation; Jealousy; Suspicion

Economical causes– Unemployment; Poverty; Expenses

Religious causes– Rites and rituals; Customs

Legal causes– Implementation issues; Justice system

Political causes– Equality; Participation.

Impact on women Social and psychological– Role; Inferiority complex; On children

Economic– Dependence; Basic needs; Education

Health– Prevalence of many mental diseases, lifestyle diseases, etc.

Constitutional protection Article 14; Article 15; Article 16; Article 23; Article 39A; Article 40; Article 42; Article 44.
What government is doing? Integrated Safety Plan for Women; Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandan Yojana; National Creche Scheme; National Nutrition Mission ;Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Yojana; Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana; One-stop Centre Scheme; Women Helpline Scheme; Ujjawala Scheme; Swadhar Greh Scheme; Mahila e-Haat; Rashtriya Mahila Kosh; Nirbhaya Fund; Mahila Shakti Kendra; Mahila Police Volunteers Scheme; Mudra Yojana Scheme for women; Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana; The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace Act, 2013; The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006; Special Marriage Act, 1954; Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961; Indian Divorce Act, 1969; Maternity Benefit Act; Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act; Indecent Representation of Women(Prevention) Act,1986; National Commission for Women Act, 1990; Equal Remuneration Act, 1976; Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005; The Indian Penal Code,1860; The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956
SC decisions Vishakha and others v/s State of Rajasthan case– Vishakha guidelines for protection against sexual harassment. Laxmi v/s Union Of India (2006)- imposed strict regulations on the sale of acid, including ban on sale of acid over the counter and ban on sale of acid to a person below 18 years. Lillu v/s State Of Haryana (2013)– court held that the two-finger test is a violation of the victim’s right to privacy and dignity. In ABC v/s The State (NCT of Delhi) (2015) the Supreme Court in a landmark judgment held that an unwed mother belonging to the Christian faith is not bound to disclose the name of the child’s father. Dhannulal and ors v/s Ganeshram and Ors (2015)- the bench held that continuous cohabitation of a couple together that is, ‘live-in relationship’ would raise the presumption of marriage unless otherwise proven. Shayara Bano v/s Union of India (2017), the Supreme Court declared the practice of Instant Triple Talaq (talak-e-biddat) un-Islamic and against the basic tenets of Quran. The Sabarimala Temple case is one of the most important cases that initiated the debate between Right to Equality and Right to Freedom of Religion. Lata Singh Vs State of Uttar Pradesh– Supreme Court held that an adult woman the right to marry or live with anyone of her choice. Centre for enquiry into Health and Allied themes (CEHAT) Vs Union of India– Supreme court directed the Central and State governments to enact the provisions of the act immediately, and banned all advertisements relating to pre-natal sex determination techniques.
What can be done? Education; Sensitization; Equality; Awareness; Legal remedies; Fast-tracked adjudication; Economic support.

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