29th January,2022 ; Daily Current Affairs 

Daily Current Affairs   Date : 29th January,2022

 (30+ Questions hit in Prelims 2021 from this series)

Covers 4 Most relevant Sources

  • The Hindu
  • Indian Express
  • PIB
  • Mint


  • A) Agriculture, Geography, Environment and Biodiversity
  • Cage Aquaculture: Advantages and Disadvantages (PIB)
  • Biligiri Ranganathaswamy Temple (BRT) Tiger Reserve (TH, pg 5)
  • B) Schemes, Policies, Initiatives, Awards and Social Issues
  • Mission Karmayogi – National Programme for Civil Services Capacity Building (NPCSCB) (PIB)
  • Additional Resources to States for Undertaking Power Sector Reforms (PIB)
  • Scheme on Enhancement of Competitiveness in the Indian Capital Goods Sector- Phase-II (PIB)
  • C) Science and Technology, Defence, Space
  • An Overview of Previous Space Missions of ISRO (PIB)
  • D) Economic Developments: India and World
  • National Asset Reconstruction Company Ltd. (NARCL) Vs India Debt Resolution Company Ltd. (IDRCL) (TH, pg 12)
  • Explained: What is Reverse Repo Normalisation? (IE)
  • E) International Relations
  • Honduras (TH, pg 11)
  • F) Polity, Bills, Acts and Judgments
  • All About Electoral Bonds (TH, pg 6)
  • Suspension of MLAs (TH, pg 1)
  • Elections to the Legislative Council (TH, pg 8)
  • G) Art, Culture and History
  • Kirana Gharana of Hindustani Classical Music (TH, pg 5)


A) Agriculture, Geography, Environment and Biodiversity

  1. Cage Aquaculture: Advantages and Disadvantages (PIB)
  • Context:Govt organises webinar on ‘Cage aquaculture in Reservoir: Sleeping Giants.’


  • Catla, Rohu and Mrigal constitute 87% of the production through inland aquaculture in India.
  • However, freshwater aquaculture in India is largely a pond-based system.


  • Cage culture has advantages which include:
  • Many types of water resources can be used, including lakes, reservoirs, ponds, strip pits, streams and rivers which could otherwise not be harvested.
  • A relatively low initial investment is required in an existing body of water.


  • Cage culture also has some distinct disadvantages. These include:
  • Low Dissolved Oxygen Syndrome (LODOS) is an ever present problem and may require mechanical aeration.
  • Fouling of net cage.
  • The incidence of disease can be high and diseases may spread rapidly.
  • Accumulation of unused feed and excreta will lead to water pollution as well as eutrophication.


  1. Biligiri Ranganathaswamy Temple (BRT) Tiger Reserve (TH, pg 5)
  • Context: Tiger enumeration is under way at Biligiri Ranganathaswamy Temple (BRT) Tiger Reserve in Karnataka’s Chamarajanagar district bordering Tamil Nadu and the results are expected to seal its place as a critical habitat providing connectivity for wildlife between the Eastern and the Western ghats landscape.


  • The Biligirirangana Hills, commonly called B R Hills, is a hill range situated in south-eastern Karnataka.
  • The area is called Biligiriranganatha Swamy Temple Tiger Reserve or simply BRT Tiger Reserve.
  • It is a protected reserve under the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972.
  • Being at the confluence of the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats, the Tiger Reserve is home to eco-systems that are unique to both the mountain ranges.
  • This Tiger Reserve is unique because it has scrub, dry decidous, moist deciduous, semi-evergreen, evergreen and shola forests.
  • The tiger reserve is also part of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.

Do you know?

  • Karnataka has second highest tiger population in India in its 5 Tiger Reserves namely, Bandipur, Bhadra, Nagarahole, Dandeli-Anshi and BRT Tiger Reserves.
  • Madhya Pradesh (MP) was awarded the ‘Tiger State’ in 2018 for being home to the biggest population of the big cat (526).


B) Schemes, Policies, Initiatives, Awards and Social Issues

  1. Mission Karmayogi – National Programme for Civil Services Capacity Building (NPCSCB) (PIB)
  • Context:The Ministry of Food Processing Industries has become the first amongst all Ministries and Departments to develop and implement Capacity Building Plan under Mission Karmayogi.


  • The National Programme for Civil Services Capacity Building (NPCSCB) has been launched with the following institutional framework:
  • (i) Prime Minister’s Public Human Resources (HR) Council,
  • (ii) Capacity Building Commission,
  • (iii) Special Purpose Vehicle for owning and operating the digital assets and the technological platform for online training,
  • (iv) Coordination Unit headed by the Cabinet Secretary.

Salient Features

  • NPCSCB has been carefully designed to lay the foundations for capacity building for Civil Servants so that they remain entrenched in Indian Culture and sensibilities and remain connected, with their roots, while they learn from the best institutions and practices across the world.
  • The Programme will be delivered by setting up an Integrated Government Online Training-iGOT Karmayogi
  • The role of Capacity Building Commission will be as under-
  • To assist the PM Public Human Resources Council in approving the Annual Capacity Building Plans.
  • To exercise functional supervision over all Central Training Institutions dealing with civil services capacity building.
  • To create shared learning resources, including internal and external faculty and resource centers.
  • To coordinate and supervise the implementation of the Capacity Building Plans with the stakeholder Departments.
  • To make recommendations on standardization of training and capacity building, pedagogy and methodology.
  • To set norms for common mid-career training programs across all civil services.
  • To suggest policy interventions required in the areas of HR Management and Capacity Building to the Government.
  • A Public Human Resources Council comprising of select Union Ministers, Chief Ministers, eminent public HR practitioners, thinkers, global thought leaders and Public Service functionaries under the Chairmanship of Hon’ble Prime Minister will serve as the apex body for providing strategic direction to the task of Civil Services Reform and capacity building.


  1. Additional Resources to States for Undertaking Power Sector Reforms (PIB)
  • Context:Department of Expenditure, Ministry of Finance has granted additional borrowing permission of Rs. 7,309 crore to Rajasthan and Andhra Pradeshfor undertaking the stipulated reforms in power sector.


  • Ministry of Finance, based on the recommendations of the Fifteenth Finance Commission, has decided to grant additional borrowing space of upto 0.5 percent of the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) to the States every year for a four year period from 2021-22 to 2024-25 based on reform undertaken by the States in the power sector.
  • This will make available additional resources of more than Rs. 1 lakh crore every year to the States.
  • The objectives of the additional borrowing permissions are to improve the operational and economic efficiency of the sector, and promote a sustained increase in paid electricity consumption.
  • In order to avail additional borrowing space linked to Power sector reforms, the State government has to undertake a set of mandatory reforms and also meet stipulated performance benchmarks.
  • The reforms to be carried out by the States are –
  • Progressive assumption of responsibility for losses of public sector distribution companies (DISCOMs) by the State Government.
  • Transparency in the reporting of financial affairs of power sector including payment of subsidies and recording of liabilities of Governments to DISCOMs and of DISCOMs to others.
  • Timely rendition of financial and energy accounts and timely audit.
  • Compliance with legal and regulatory requirements.
  • Once, the aforesaid reforms have been undertaken by the State, the performance of the State is evaluated on the basis of the following criteria to determine the eligibility for additional borrowing in 2021-22.
  • Percentage of metered electricity consumption against total energy consumption including agricultural connections
  • Subsidy payment by Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) to consumers
  • Payment of Electricity bills by Government Departments and local bodies
  • Installation of prepaid meters in government office
  • Use of Innovations and Innovative technologies
  • In addition, States are also eligible for bonus marks for privatization of the power distribution companies.
  • The Ministry of Power is the nodal Ministry for assessment of performance of States and determining their eligibility for granting additional borrowing permission.


  1. Scheme on Enhancement of Competitiveness in the Indian Capital Goods Sector- Phase-II (PIB)
  • Context:Ministry of Heavy Industries (MHI) has notified the Scheme on Enhancement of Competitiveness in the Indian Capital Goods Sector- Phase-II for providing assistance to Common Technology Development and Services Infrastructure.


  • The objective of Phase II of the Scheme for Enhancement of Competitiveness of the Capital Goods Sector is to expand and enlarge the impact created by Phase I pilot scheme, thereby providing greater impetus through creation of a strong and globally competitive capital goods sector that contributes at least 25% to the manufacturing sector.


C) Science and Technology, Defence, Space

  1. An Overview of Previous Space Missions of ISRO (PIB)
  • Context: Shri Kiran Kumar, former chairman, ISRO, gave an overview of previous space missions by India and chalked a roadmap of new missions till 2025 in a keynote address.


  • He said that Chandrayaan 1 was a significant mission for ISRO, and it changed the perception of the Moon for us, including discovery of OH and water molecules on the Moon.
  • Mars Orbiter Mission has completed 7 years studying Mars.
  • AstroSat mission is the first dedicated astronomical observatory that India has put in orbit.
  • Chandrayaan 2 orbiter is healthy, and all payloads are operational. The spacecraft can remain functional for many more years.
  • He also pointed out that the making of the satellite for the Aditya-L1 mission, which will study the sun, is nearing its completion and will likely be launched this year.
  • He also said that in future, ISRO and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) will be collaborating on a lunar exploration mission.


D) Economic Developments: India and World

  1. National Asset Reconstruction Company Ltd. (NARCL) Vs India Debt Resolution Company Ltd. (IDRCL) (TH, pg 12)
  • Context: Banks have finalised plans to transfer by the end of this fiscal year 15 Non-Performing Asset (NPA) accounts worth ₹50,000 crore to the National Asset Reconstruction Company Ltd. (NARCL), or the ‘bad bank’ set up to help resolve the stress.


  • All requisite approvals, including from the RBI, for setting up NARCL and the India Debt Resolution Company Ltd. (IDRCL) have now been received and that both companies were ready to commence business.
  • The NARCL has been set up and issued a licence by the RBI to conduct business as an Asset Reconstruction Company. NARCL will acquire and aggregate the identified NPA accounts from the banks.
  • Simultaneously, a separate company has been set up to function as an Asset Management Company, named IDRCL, which will handle the debt resolution process, provide management and resolution of assets and also help in the operational aspects, relating to price discovery and aim at evolving the best possible recovery and the resolution process.
  • The NARCL is majorly owned by public sector banks with 51 per cent ownership but in the case of the IDRCL, 51 per cent shares are in private hands.
  • Majority-owned by state-owned banks, the NARCL will be assisted by the India Debt Resolution Company Ltd (IDRCL), in turn majority-owned by private banks, in resolution process in the form of a Principal-Agent basis and final approvals and ownership for the resolution shall lie with NARCL as the Principal.
  • However, the Indian Banks Association (IBA) wants a dual structure with the asset management company or AMC as a privately held entity, to be out of the purview of the regulatory entities.
  • That would have given it requisite flexibility to deal with the resolution process, as normally a single entity is accountable as owner and for recovery of the assets in the asset reconstruction business.
  • But now, with the ‘Principal and Agent mechanism’ that has been put in place to address regulatory concerns, the final approvals will still be done by NARCL as the Principal.
  • So, even though IDRCL is majority-owned by private banks, the final authority will rest with NARCL, which is majority-owned by public sector banks. This has been done possibly to address regulatory concerns around the bad bank structure.

Need for NARCL and IDRCL

  • With so many ARCs being around in the private sector, the reason for a separate National ARC was the painfully slow process of the sale to private ARCs due to valuation issues, slower and longer resolution given fragmented ARC holdings/legal hurdles and potentially huge upfront capital/ cash required to buy large NPAs.
  • Bankers were also questioned by auditors and Central agencies on the deals, which largely clogged decision-making process and hurt the transfer/resolution of NPAs.
  • Thus, a national ARC, with a different legal and operational structure and government backing, dispensations and funding support, was essential to break the chain.
  • The high level of provisioning by public sector banks of their stressed assets calls for measures to clean up the bank books and free up their capital for further bank lending.
  • The NARCL will purchase these bad loans through a 15:85 structure, where it will pay 15 per cent of the sale consideration in cash and issue security receipts (SRs) for the remaining 85 per cent. This will address banks/RBI concerns about incremental provisioning.
  • A form of contingent liability, the guarantee does not involve any immediate cash outgo for the central government.
  • The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has said that loans classified as fraud cannot be sold to NARCL.

Non-Performing Assets (NPAs)

  • A non-performing asset (NPA) is a loan or an advance for which the principal or interest payment remained overdue for a period of 90 days.
  • If accounts remain ‘out of order’ in case of overdraft/Cash Credit accounts or the bills purchased/discounted remain overdue for a period of more than 90 days, such accounts will also be classified as NPA.
  • In cases where the outstanding balance in the principal operating account is less than the sanctioned limit/drawing power, but there are no credits continuously for 90 days or credits are not enough to cover the interest debited during the same period, these accounts should be treated as ‘out of order‘”.
  • Any amount due to the bank under any credit facility is ‘overdue’ if it is not paid on the due date fixed by the bank.
  • In case of agricultural advance, the account is classified as NPA, if the instalment of principle or interest thereon remain overdue for two crop seasons for short duration crops.
  • In case of long duration crop loans, the account will be classified as NPA if the outstanding is overdue for more than one crop season.

Gross and Net NPAs

  • Gross NPA is the total amount of outstanding NPAs in the borrowable account, excluding the interest receivable.
  • As per RBI regulation, once the account is classified as NPA interest cannot be debited to the NPA account.
  • Sometimes, Gross NPA is also defined as the total value of loans on which interest income has not been received by the Bank for more than 90 days, divided by total loan portfolio of bank.
  • Net NPA means GNPA minus total provision for Bad and Doubtful Reserve (BDDR).
  • BDDR is a reserve created by the banks in order to safeguard their loan assets in case some loan asset fall bad or get NPA.
  • This is a method of safeguarding the interest of the shareholders in case Banks are suffering huge loss due to NPAs.
  • All Gross NPA less the BDDR, amounts to Net NPA.

NPAs and Provisioning Requirements

  • Setting aside of money from profits to compensate a probable loss caused on lending a loan is called Provisioning. Provisioning is done to cover risk.
  • In the case of loss accounts for which the recovery is found to be almost negligible, banks make provision up to 100 percent
  • In the case of doubtful accounts for which some recovery is expected, banks make provision depending upon the period of classification and the provision may be 90; 85; 80 percent etc.
  • Even banks make provision for standard assets also. It has to be noted that there is no guarantee that the personal loans granted to the borrowers will be recovered in full.
  • Provisioning provides some information about the financial loss that the bank is going to incur during the financial year on account of writing off loan accounts for which recoveries are expected to be almost nil.
  • When banks report profits, they give low dividends now a day because of the provisioning requirement.
  • Many banks have substantial NPAs now and they are setting apart a major chunk of their profit to meet the provisioning.


  1. Explained: What is Reverse Repo Normalisation? (IE)
  • Context: In a recent report, State Bank of India, which is the largest public sector bank in the country, has stated: “…we believe the stage is set for a reverse repo normalisation.”


  • The Reserve Bank of India keeps tweaking the total amount of money in the economy to ensure smooth functioning.
  • As such, when the RBI wants to boost economic activity it adopts a so-called “loose monetary policy”. There are two parts to such a policy.
  • One, the RBI injects more money (liquidity) into the economy. It does so by buying government bonds from the market. As the RBI buys these bonds, it pays back money to the bondholders, thus injecting more money into the economy.
  • Two, the RBI also lowers the interest rate it charges banks when it lends money to them; this rate is called the repo rate. By lowering the interest rate at which it lends money to commercial banks, the RBI hopes that the commercial banks (and the rest of the banking system), in turn, will feel incentivised to lower interest rates.
  • Lower interest rates and more liquidity, together, are expected to boost both consumption and production in the economy.
  • For a consumer, it would now pay less to keep the money in the bank — thus it incentivises current consumption.
  • For firms and entrepreneurs, it would make more sense to borrow money to start a new enterprise because interest rates are lower.
  • The reverse of a loose monetary policy is a “tight monetary policy” and it involves the RBI raising interest rates and sucking liquidity out of the economy by selling bonds (and taking money out of the system).
  • When any central bank finds that a loose monetary policy has started becoming counterproductive (for example, when it leads to a higher inflation rate), the central bank “normalises the policy” by tightening the monetary policy stance.

What is reverse repo and how does it fit into policy normalisation?

  • The reverse repo is the interest rate that the RBI pays to the commercial banks when they park their excess “liquidity” (money) with the RBI. The reverse repo, thus, is the exact opposite of the repo rate and it is always lower than repo rate.
  • Under normal circumstances, that is when the economy is growing at a healthy pace, the repo rate becomes the benchmark interest rate in the economy. That’s because it is the lowest rate of interest at which funds can be borrowed. As such, the repo rate forms the floor interest rate for all other interest rates in the economy — be it the rate you pay for a car loan or a home loan or the interest you earn on your fixed deposit etc.
  • But imagine a scenario where the RBI pumps more and more liquidity into the market but there are no takers of fresh loans — either because the banks are unwilling to lend or because there is no genuine demand for new loans in the economy.
  • In such a scenario, the action shifts from repo rate to reverse repo rate because banks are no longer interested in borrowing money from the RBI.
  • Rather they are more interested in parking their excess liquidity with the RBI. And that is how the reverse repo becomes the actual benchmark interest rate in the economy.
  • The reverse repo had become the benchmark rate in India since the start of the Covid pandemic. In short, the RBI had widened the gap between repo rate and reverse repo rate in order to make it less attractive for banks to simply park their funds at the RBI. A lower reverse repo rate pushed banks to extend more fresh loans in the economy.

What does reverse repo normalisation mean?

  • Simply put, it means the reverse repo rates will go up.
  • Over the past few months, in the face of rising inflation, several central banks across the world have either increased interest rates or signaled that they would do so soon.
  • In India, too, it is expected that the RBI will raise the repo rate. But before that, it is expected that the RBI will raise the reverse repo rate and reduce the gap between the two rates. In the immediate aftermath of Covid, RBI had increased this gap.
  • SBI first expects the reverse repo to go up from 3.35% to 3.75% while the repo rate continues to be 4%. Doing this will incentivise commercial banks to park excess funds with RBI, thus sucking some liquidity out of the system.The next step would be raising the repo rate.
  • This process of normalisation, which is aimed at curbing inflation, will not only reduce excess liquidity but also result in higher interest rates across the board in the Indian economy — thus reducing the demand for money among consumers (since it would make more sense to just keep the money in the bank) and making it costlier for businesses to borrow fresh loans.


E) International Relations

  1. Honduras (TH, pg 11)
  • Context:Leftist Xiomara Castro was sworn in as the first woman President of Honduras, vowing to reform the crime-and poverty-stricken nation into a “socialist and democratic state.”


  • Honduras is a country of Central America situated between Guatemala and El Salvador to the west and Nicaragua to the south and east. The Caribbean Sea washes its northern coast, the Pacific Ocean its narrow coast to the south.


F) Polity, Bills, Acts and Judgments

  1. All About Electoral Bonds (TH, pg 6)
  • Context: The Supreme Court flagged its concern that political parties could misuse crores of rupees received as donations through electoral bonds to bankroll violent protests or even terror.
  • The court asked the government whether there was any “control” over how these donations were used by the political parties.


What are electoral bonds?

  • Electoral bonds were announced in the Union Budget of 2017-18.
  • The electoral bond scheme is being implemented by the Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance under the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934.
  • An electoral bond is a bearer instrument like a Promissory Note — in effect, it will be similar to a bank note that is payable to the bearer on demand and free of interest.
  • bearer instrument, or bearer bond, is a type of fixed-income security in which no ownership information is recorded and the security is issued in physical form to the purchaser.
  • The holder is presumed to be the owner, and whoever is in possession of the physical bond is entitled to the coupon payments.
  • Promissory Note is a signed document containing a written promise to pay a stated sum to a specified person or the bearer at a specified date or on demand.
  • The bonds will be issued in multiples of ₹1,000, ₹10,000, ₹1 lakh, ₹10 lakh and ₹1 crore and will be available at specified branches of State Bank of India.
  • SBI is the ‘Sole Authorized Bank’ by the Government of India for selling Electoral Bonds.
  • The minimum amount for donation in Electoral Bonds is Rs 1000. There is no maximum limit for donation.
  • Donors, with a KYC-compliant account, can donate the bonds to their party of choice anonymously which can then be cashed in via the party’s verified account within 15 days.
  • The bonds do not bear the name of the donor, and the details are not made public.

What are the other conditions?

  • Every party that is registered under section 29A of the Representation of the Peoples Act, 1951 and has secured at least one per cent of the votes polled in the most recent Lok Sabha or State election will be allotted a verified account by the Election Commission of India.
  • Electoral bond transactions can be made only via this account.
  • The bonds will be available for purchase for a period of 10 days each in the beginning of every quarter, i.e. in January, April, July and October as specified by the Central Government.
  • An additional period of 30 days shall be specified by the Central Government in the year of Lok Sabha elections.

Who is eligible to donate through Electoral Bonds?

  • The Electoral Bonds under this Scheme may be purchased by a Person, who is a Citizen of India or Incorporated or Established in India.
  • The definition of “Person” includes-
  • an Individual;
  • a Hindu Undivided Family;
  • a Company;
  • a Firm;
  • an Association of Persons or a Body of Individuals, whether incorporated or not;
  • every Artificial Juridical Person, not falling within any of the preceding subclauses; and
  • any Agency, Office or Branch owned or controlled by such person.
  • Not onlycompanies but even individuals, groups of individuals, NGOs, religious and other trusts are permitted to donate via electoral bonds without disclosing their details.
  • There is no limit on the number of bonds an individual or company can purchase.
  • SBI deposits bonds that a political party hasn’t enchased within 15 days into the Prime Minister’s Relief Fund.
  • Whether joint holding will be allowed? Electoral Bonds can be purchased either Singly or Jointly with other Individuals but not more than three Applicants per Application Form. No name(s) will be printed on the Bond.
  • Can Electoral Bonds be purchased multiple times by same Applicant? Every application will be treated as fresh request for Electoral Bonds purchase and every time fresh KYC documents will be given.
  • All payment for the issuance of the Electoral Bonds will be accepted in Indian Rupees only.
  • Once the Electoral Bond is purchased it cannot be cancelled and no amount will be refunded to the Purchaser.
  • Political Party cannot open more than one Current Account for Electoral Bond redemption.
  • However, a Political Party can use this Current Account for other operations also.
  • If the Political Party becomes de-notified before the next issuance of Electoral Bonds, then Bank will change the product code of their account to a regular Current Account code, so that Electoral Bonds cannot be deposited in the account.
  • The electoral bonds will not bear the name of the donor. In essence, the donor and the party details will be available with the bank, but the political party might not be aware of who the donor is.
  • The intention is to ensure that all the donations made to a party will be accounted for in the balance sheets without exposing the donor details to the public.
  • The maximum amount of cash donation that a political party can receive is capped at ₹2,000 and that parties are entitled to receive donations by cheque or digital mode, in addition to electoral bonds.




  1. Suspension of MLAs (TH, pg 1)
  • Context:The Supreme Court revoked the one-year suspension of 12 MLAs from the Maharashtra Assembly, calling it an “irrational” act that would impact the democratic set-up, leave constituencies unrepresented and help governments on a “thin majority” manipulate numbers.


  • The BJP legislators were suspended for a year for “grossly disorderly conduct” in the House during the monsoon session in 2021.
  • The court said it was illegal and beyond the powers of the Assembly to suspend a sitting legislator beyond the ongoing session.
  • The Court said, “It would also impact the democratic set-up as a whole by permitting the thin majority government [coalition government] of the day to manipulate the numbers of the Opposition party in the House in an undemocratic manner.” More importantly, the constituency would remain unrepresented in the Assembly.
  • The SC Bench said the House cannot suspend a member beyond 59 days.
  • The Bench referred to Article 190 (4) of the Constitution which says that if for a period of 60 days, a member of a House, without its permission, is absent, the House may declare his or her seat vacant.


  1. Elections to the Legislative Council (TH, pg 8)
  • Context: The Election Commission of India announced polling for the seats in the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Council.


  • Unlike the members of the legislative assembly, the members of the legislative council are indirectly elected.
  • The maximum strength of the legislative council is fixed at one-third of the total strength of the assembly and the minimum strength is fixed at 40.
  • It means that the size of the council depends on the size of the assembly of the concerned state.
  • This is done to ensure the predominance of the directly elected House (assembly) in the legislative affairs of the state.
  • Though the Constitution has fixed the maximum and the minimum limits, the actual strength of a Council is fixed by Parliament.

Manner of Election

  • Of the total number of members of a legislative council:
  • 1/3 are elected by the members of local bodies in the state like municipalities, district boards, etc.,
  • 1/12 are elected by graduates of three years standing and residing within the state,
  • 1/12 are elected by teachers of three years standing in the state, not lower in standard than secondary school,
  • 1/3 are elected by the members of the legislative assembly of the state from amongst persons who are not members of the assembly, and
  • The remainder are nominated by the governor from amongst persons who have a special knowledge or practical experience of literature, science, art, cooperative movement and social service.
  • Thus, 5/6 of the total number of members of a legislative council are indirectly elected and 1/6 are nominated by the governor.
  • The members are elected in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of a single transferable vote.
  • The bonafide or propriety of the governor’s nomination in any case cannot be challenged in the courts.
  • This scheme of composition of a legislative council as laid down in the Constitution is tentative and not final and only the Parliament is authorised to modify or replace the same. However, it has not enacted any such law so far.

Duration of Council

  • Like the Rajya Sabha, the legislative council is a continuing chamber, that is, it is a permanent body and is not subject to dissolution.
  • But, one-third of its members retire on the expiration of every second year.
  • So, a member continues as such for six years.
  • The vacant seats are filled up by fresh elections and nominations (by governor) at the beginning of every third year.
  • The retiring members are also eligible for re-election and re-nomination any number of times.
  • The Council has its Chairman and Deputy Chairman who enjoy the status of Cabinet Ministers in the State.
  • The Chairman is elected by the council itself from amongst its members.
  • The Chairman vacates his office in any of the following three cases:
  • if he ceases to be a member of the council;
  • if he resigns by writing to the deputy chairman; and
  • if he is removed by a resolution passed by a majority of all the then members of the council. Such a resolution can be moved only after giving 14 days advance notice.
  • As a presiding officer, the powers and functions of the Chairman inthe council are similar to those of the Speaker in the assembly.
  • However, the Speaker has one special power which is not enjoyed by the Chairman.
  • The Speaker decides whether a bill is a Money Bill or not and his decision on this question is final.
  • The salaries and allowances of the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the assembly and the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the council are fixed by the state legislature.
  • They are charged on the Consolidated Fund of the State and thus are not subject to the annual vote of the state legislature.
  • The Deputy Chairman performs the duties of the Chairman’s office when it is vacant. He also acts as the Chairman when the latter is absent from the sitting of the council. In both the cases, he has all the powers of the Chairman.
  • The Chairman nominates from amongst the members a panel of vice-chairman.
  • Any one of them can preside over the council in the absence of the Chairman or the Deputy Chairman.
  • He has the same powers as the chairman when so presiding. He holds office until a new panel of vice-chairman is nominated.

What is the role of legislative council?

  • It is considered important for two reasons:
  • a) it can ensure individuals who might not be cut out for the elections are able to contribute to the legislative process (like artists, scientists, etc).
  • b) It can keep an eye on hasty decisions taken by the Legislative Assembly.

Do you know?

  • There is no uniformity in the organisation of state legislatures.
  • Most of the states have a unicameral system, while others have a bicameral system.
  • In the states having bicameral system, the state legislature consists of the governor, the legislative council and the legislative assembly.
  • The legislative council (Vidhan Parishad) is the upper house (second chamber or house of elders), while the legislative assembly (Vidhan Sabha) is the lower house (first chamber or popular house).
  • At present (2019), only six states have two Houses (bicameral). These are Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra and Karnataka.
  • The Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Council was abolished by the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019.
  • The Tamil Nadu Legislative Council Act, 2010 has not come into force.
  • The Legislative Council in Andhra Pradesh was revived by the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Council Act, 2005.
  • The 7th Amendment Act of 1956 provided for a Legislative Council in Madhya Pradesh. However, a notification to this effect has to be made by the President. So far, no such notification has been made. Hence, Madhya Pradesh continues to have one House only.
  • The Constitution provides for the abolition or creation of legislative councils in states.
  • According to Article 169 of the Constitution, the Parliament can abolish a legislative council (where it already exists) or create it (where it does not exist), if the legislative assembly of the concerned state passes a resolution to that effect.
  • Such a specific resolution must be passed by the state assembly by a special majority, that is, a majority of the total membership of the assembly and a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members of the assembly present and voting.
  • This Act of Parliament is not to be deemed as an amendment of the Constitution for the purposes of Article 368 and is passed like an ordinary piece of legislation (i.e., by simple majority).
  • The idea of having a second chamber in the states was criticised in the Constituent Assembly on the ground that it was not representative of the people, that it delayed legislative process and that it was an expensive institution.
  • Consequently, the provision was made for the abolition or creation of a legislative council to enable a state to have a second chamber or not according to its ownwillingness and financial strength.


G) Art, Culture and History

  1. Kirana Gharana of Hindustani Classical Music (TH, pg 5)
  • Context: Prabha Atre, the senior-most practitioner of the gharana, has been awarded the Padma Vibhushan.


  • Together with nephew and another legend Abdul Wahid Khan, Abdul Karim Khan gave India the famous Kirana Gharana gayaki.
  • Emperor Jehangir resettled many families of musicians in Kirana in western Uttar Pradesh after a devastating flood destroyed their homes.
  • It was Ustad Abdul Wahid Khan of Kairana who is credited with introducing Ati Vilambit Laya or slow-tempo method to the Khayal form of gayaki (singing).
  • Note-by-note unfolding of the raga is what defines Kirana Gharana.
  • The Kirana gharana laid emphasis on melody rather than rhythm.
  • Kirana is not the only gharana that has originated from Uttar Pradesh. Gwalior, Agra and Atrauli gharanas too trace their origin to Western Uttar Pradesh.
  • Bhimshen Joshi has become the most popular artist of this gharana

Do you know?

  • Today we recognise two systems of classical music: the Hindustani and the Carnatic.
  • Carnatic music is confined to Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. The classical music of the rest of the country goes under the name, Hindustani Classical Music.

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