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Challenges Faced By Women In The Workplace (GS-1Exam Synopsis)

Exam Synopsis:

  Women In The WorkPlace face problems at the workplace just by virtue of their being women.

j Women In The Workplace
Stats of Women In The Workplace Women’s work participation rates have fallen sharply – from 29 percent in 2004-5 to 22 percent in 2011-12 and to 17 per cent in 2017-18.
What are the challenges faced? Sexual Harassment; Gender Pay Gap; Climbing the Career Ladder; Appearance; Work-Life Imbalance; Health; Job Security; Relationship with colleagues; Problem of transport; Lack of basic facilities; Dual responsibility; Working women and children; Restrictions on movement.
What protection they are provided with? Equal Remuneration Act; Maternity Benefits Act, 2017; The Factories Act, 1948; The Employee’s State Insurance Act, 1948; The Plantations Labour Act, 1951; The Mines Act, 1952; The Beedi and ·Cigar Workers (Conditions of Employment) Act, 1966; The Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970; The Inter-State Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Services) Act, 1979; Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013; Vishakha Guidelines; MGNREGA.
What SC has adjudicated? In Radha Charan Patnaik V. State of Orissa– SC held disqualifying married women from being selected violates Article 16.

C.B. Muthama V. Union of India– SC rejected the Government’s arguments as violative of Article 16.

In Vishakha v. State of Rajasthan– pronouncing that the right to life for working women includes an environment free from sexual harassment.

In Apparel Export Promotion Council v. A.K Chopra– upheld its ruling in Vishakha’s Case.

Maternity Bill and working women Increased the right to paid maternity leave for working women from 12 weeks to 26 weeks. The law applies only to women working in companies with at least 10 employees. 

Positive effects– Stress free child care; Female mortality during child birth will go down; Women from unorganised sector will highly benefit; Perks for female employees will end, levelling the playing field

Negative impacts– SME and start-ups cannot afford long leaves for employees; Male-dominated job industry will not consider women for key positions; Accentuates resource unavailability; Male employees will consider the bill a disadvantage; Women might misuse the maternity bill benefits; Women might postpone starting a family

Way forward Gender equity; Job security; Crèches; Equal pay; Act against exploitation; Working conditions for women.
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