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Role Of NGOs In India(GS-2 Exam Synopsis)2020-21(UPSC)

Exam Time Synopsis:

Non-profit making groups formed for the social welfare of mankind are know as NGOs.

Historical background- Begin with the formation of Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj, Ramakrishna Mission etc. Worked for relief, rehabilitation, removing social evils etc.
Registration Can be as society, trust, cooperative, civil society or charitable company.
Role For awareness, education, research, the welfare of marginalized sections, skilling, training, surveying, environment protection, development of rural areas, culture revival, healthcare facilities.
Funding- Both government and foreign. Foreign funding under FCRA 2010. Exemption under IT Act Sec 80G. 
Issues with NGOs- Opaqueness, lack of accountability, hidden motives, interference, foreign influence, partnership with non-state actors.
The problem of NGOs- Lack of funding, accreditation, trained personal, reach, corruption, public distrust. 
Constitutional Provisions Article 19(1)(c), Article 43(b), Entry 32 of State list and Entry 10 and 28 of Concurrent list
Statutes for NGO- Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act, 2010, Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999.
NGOs and RTI- As per SC decision, now NGOs with substantial government funding comes under the public authority under RTI act.
Way forward Need for accreditation agency, need for monitoring and surveillance, proper funding, need for policy, deregulation to certain extent.


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