Q . The Technology Missions were launched with certain objectives that are yet to be fulfilled. Examine the Missions in operation.   15TH, NOVEMBER,2020  (10 marks, 200 words, GS-3)



  • Introductory para to present the current population stats and what Economic Survey predicts
  • The next para about the present measures and steps taken to ripe the fruits of demographic dividend
  • Third para for the issues and challenges awaiting
  • Final concluding para about the future steps and measures needed.

The “Technology Missions” are the brain child of Mr. Rajiv Gandhi. The mission was started as an offshoot of the Seventh Plan in the fields of literacy, immunization, oilseeds, drinking water, dairy products and telecommunication.

Subsequently, pulses, oil palm and maize were also brought within the purview of the Mission in 1990-91, 1992 and 1995-96 respectively.

The objectives of the mission are:-

  • Make substantial improvement in the functional literacy of the population.
  • Immunize all infants against six diseases and women against tetanus.
  • Cut down imports of edible oil.
  • Improve the availability and quality of drinking water in rural areas.
  • Improve milk production and rural employment,
  • Extend and improve the telecommunication network especially in rural areas

Analysis of various sectors

  • Drinking water– The drinking water mission identified 100,000 problem villages. Research was done, using geohydrological mapping, to determine where to drill new wells, increasing water sources. India still has major portion of Households that do not have access to safe drinking water.
  • Immunization– the Mission helped to make India Polio-free by 2013. Many different vaccines have been introduced. The Intensified Mission Indradhanush has further accelerated the immunization drive. Emergence of new diseases making it difficult for full immunization and also the neighbouring countries are yet to immunize their children which may again be the cause of spread of those diseases.
  • Literacy– When the Technology Missions began, India’s literacy rate was around 50%. Several hundred million adults were illiterate, most of them women. But still we have the literacy rate of 69% and hence still a long way to go to achieve universal literacy.
  • Oilseeds– India were importing large part of its demand for oilseeds but after the launch of the Mission, now India is exporting the oilseeds. However still we are importing the oils like palm oil and hence we have to increase the yield.
  • Telecommunication– The official goal of the telecom mission was to improve service, dependability, and accessibility of telecommunications across the county, including rural areas. This was through indigenous development, local young talent, rural telecom, digital switching networks, local manufacturing and privatization. Many are yet to have access to internet and even mobiles. Network penetration is low and so the impact of call drops on economy.
  • Dairy Farming– the goal of the dairy mission was to develop and implement technologies to improve breeding, animal health, and fodder and milk production and now India is the largest producer.

Various Missions that are in operation-

  • National Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture
  • Horticulture Mission for North East and Himalayan States
  • National Horticulture Mission
  • National Mission on Oilseeds and Palm Oil
  • Technology Mission on Coconut
  • Technology Mission on Oilseeds, Pulses and Pulses
      • Schemes under TMOP are:
        • Oilseeds Production Program
        • National Pulses Development Project
        • Accelerated Maize Development Program
        • Post-Harvest Technology
        • Oil Palm Development Program
  • National Oilseeds and Vegetable Oil Development Board
  • National Livestock Mission
      • It has 4 Sub-Missions:
        • Livestock Development;
        • Pig Development in NE Region;
        • Feed & Fodder Development; and
        • Skill Development, Technology Transfer & Extension
  • Technology Mission on Cotton.
  • National Digital Literacy Mission
  • National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology
  • Nano Technology Mission





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