1. A) Polity, Bills, Acts and Judgments
  2. Establishment of three capitals (TH)
  3. B) Agriculture, Geography, Environment and Biodiversity
  4. Turtle Survival Alliance (TSA) (TH)
  5. C) Miscellaneous
  6. Inequality Virus Report (TH)
  7. Indian Telegraph Act, 1885 (TH)


A) Polity, Bills, Acts and Judgments

  1. Establishment of three capitals (TH)

  • Context: The establishment of three capitals (Amaravati, Visakhapatnam and Kurnool as legislative, executive and judicial capitals) will lead to the balanced development of all regions in Andhra Pradesh, Governor Biswa Bhusan Harichandan said in his Republic Day address.


  • Andhra Pradesh has borrowed the idea of three decentralized capitals from South Africa. Three cities serve as capitals of the country– Pretoria (executive), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial).
  • In South Africa, the unique feature of its trio of capitals arose out of the settlement at the end of the second Anglo-Boer War.
  • Several countries in the world have implemented the concept.
  • In Sri Lanka, Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte is the official capital and seat of national legislature, while Colombo is the de facto seat of national executive and judicial bodies.
  • Malaysia has its official and royal capital and seat of national legislature at Kuala Lumpur, and Putrajaya is the administrative centre and seat of national judiciary.
  • Among Indian states, Maharashtra has two capitals– Mumbai and Nagpur (which holds the winter session of the state assembly).
  • Himachal Pradesh has capitals at Shimla and Dharamshala (winter).
  • The former state of Jammu & Kashmir had Srinagar and Jammu (winter) as capitals.

B) Agriculture, Geography, Environment and Biodiversity

2.Turtle Survival Alliance (TSA) (TH)

  • The Turtle Survival Alliance (TSA) was formed in 2001 as “an IUCN partnership for sustainable captive management of freshwater turtles and tortoises.”
  • The TSA arose in response to the rampant and unsustainable harvest of Asian turtle populations to supply Chinese markets, a situation known as the Asian Turtle Crisis.
  • Recognizing that some species of turtles and tortoises were unlikely to survive without well-managed populations, the TSA was charged with developing breeding programs for the most critically endangered of the world’s chelonian species.
  • Although the TSA was organized in response to the Asian Turtle Crisis, the group is well-positioned to respond to other endangered turtle species, particularly where a managed breeding component is included in their overall survival strategy.
  • Today the TSA supports projects or programs – both wild and captive – that benefit 21 of the World’s 25 Most Endangered Tortoises and Freshwater Turtles.
  • TSA’s conservation actions utilize a three-pronged approach:
  • 1) Restoring populations in the wild where possible,
  • 2) Securing species in captivity through assurance colonies, and
  • 3) Building the capacity to restore, secure and conserve species within their range country
  • On May 23, 2020, World Turtle Day, a number of conservation agencies launched a citizen science initiative, a mobile-based application called KURMA, aimed at turtle conservation.

 C) Clever Picks (Miscellaneous)

3.Inequality Virus Report (TH)

  • Indian billionaires increased their wealth by 35% during the lockdown, ranking India after U.S., China, Germany, Russia and France, according to Oxfam’sInequality Virus Report’ released on the opening day of the World Economic Forum in Davos.
  1. Indian Telegraph Act, 1885 (TH)

  • The Union Home Ministry issued orders to suspend Internet in some areas in Delhi under a rarely used provision of a British-era Act.
  • The order issued under the Temporary Suspension of Telecom Services (Public Emergency or Public Safety Rules 2017) of the Indian Telegraph Act, 1885, had been issued only twice before — in Delhi on December 19 and 20, 2019, at the height of the protests against the Citizenship (Amendment) Act.
  • The rules framed in 2017 empower the Union Home Secretary and a State’s Home Secretary to pass directions to suspend the telecom services, including the Internet, “due to public emergency or public safety.”
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