UPSC PRELIMS & MAINS
Ocean Services, Modelling, Applications, Resources and Technology (O-SMART) scheme:
- It is an umbrella scheme of the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES).
Objectives of the scheme
- To generate and regularly update information on Marine Living Resources and their relationship with the physical environment in the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).
- To periodically monitor levels of seawater pollutants for health assessment of coastal waters of India, to develop shoreline change maps for assessment of coastal erosion due to natural and anthropogenic activities.
- To develop a wide range of state-of-the-art ocean observation systems for the acquisition of real-time data from the seas around India.
- To generate and disseminate a suite of user-oriented ocean information, advisories, warnings, data, and data products for the benefit of society.
- To develop high-resolution models for ocean forecast and reanalysis systems.
- To develop algorithms for validation of satellite data for coastal research and to monitor changes in the coastal research.
- Acquisition of 2 Coastal Research Vessels (CRVs) as replacement of 2 old CRVs for coastal pollution monitoring, testing of various underwater components, and technology demonstration.
- To develop technologies to tap the marine bioresources.
- To develop technologies generating freshwater and energy from the ocean,
10.To develop underwater vehicles and technologies.
11.Establishment of Ballast water treatment facility.
12.To support the operation and maintenance of 5 Research vessels for ocean survey/monitoring/technology demonstration programs.
13.Establishment of state of the art seafront facility to cater to the testing and sea trial activities of ocean technology.
14.To carry out exploration of Polymetallic Nodules (MPN) from a water depth of 5500 m in the site of 75000 sq.km allotted to India by the United Nations in the Central Indian Ocean Basin, to carry out investigations of gas hydrates.
15.Exploration of polymetallic sulfides near Rodrigues Triple junction in 10000 sq. km of the area allotted to India in International waters by International Seabed Authority/UN.
- Submission of India’s claim over continental shelf extending beyond the Exclusive Economic Zone supported by scientific data, and Topographic survey of EEZ of India.
- The G20 is an informal group of 19 countries and the European Union, with representatives of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
- The G20 membership comprises a mix of the world’s largest advanced and emerging economies, representing about two-thirds of the world’s population, 85% of global gross domestic product, 80% of global investment and over 75% of global trade.
- After the Asian Financial Crisis in 1997-1998, it was acknowledged that the participation of major emerging market countries is needed on discussions on the international financial system, and G7 finance ministers agreed to establish the G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors meeting in 1999.
- The G20 Summit is formally known as the “Summit on Financial Markets and the World Economy”.