PM – Kisan Yojana:

  • Central sector scheme 100% funding by the Government of India came into operation from Dec-1st 2018.
  • Under the scheme, the center transfers an amount of Rs. 6000 per annum, in three equal installments, directly into the bank accounts of the farmers irrespective of the size of their landholdings.
  • Definition of the family for the scheme is Husband, wife and minor children
  • State governments and UTs administrations will identify the families which are eligible for support as per the scheme
  • The fund will be directly transferred to bank accounts of the beneficiaries
    • There are various Exclusions Categories under this Scheme.

Line of Actual Control-(LAC):

  • The LAC is the demarcation that separates Indian Controlled territory from Chineses-Controlled Territory
  • For India the LAC is 3488kms long, while china considers it to be only around 2000kms
  • The MacMohan Line was a negotiation between India and Tibet under simla Convention of 1913-1914, without the participation of the Chinese government and China Considers the MacMohan Line illegal and unacceptable

MacMohan Line:

  • The  MacMohan Line is named after Lieutenant Colonel Sir Arthur Henry MacMohan.
  • He was foreign secretary of the British-run Government of India and the Chief negotiator of the Simla Accord of 1914
  • MacMohan proposed the line in the Simla Accord to separate Tibet from India in the eastern sector. China rejected the Simla Accord because it did not consider Tibet a sovereign government that could sign treaties. China also did not accept the boundaries between inner and outer Tibet.


Pradhan Mantri Street Vendor’s Atma Nirbhar Nidhi (PM SVANidhi):

  • PM SVANidhi was launched by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs for providing affordable Working Capital loan to street vendors to resume their livelihoods which have been severely affected due to COVID-19 induced lockdown.
  • This scheme targets to benefit over 50 lakh Street Vendors and they can avail loan up to Rs. 10,000 which is repayable in monthly instalments in the tenure of one year.
  • On timely/ early repayment of the loan, an interest subsidy @ 7% per annum will be credited to the bank accounts of beneficiaries through DBT.
  • In order to ensure fast implementation of the scheme with transparency, a digital platform with a web portal and mobile app is being developed to administer the scheme.
  • The scheme incentivises digital transactions by the street vendors through monthly cashback.

Hypersonic Technology Demonstrator Vehicle:

  • It is an unmanned scramjet vehicle with a capability to travel at six times the speed of sound.
  • The ability of engines to handle airflows of speeds in multiples of the speed of sound gives it a capability of operating at those speeds.
  • The unit tested by the DRDO can achieve up to six times the speed of sound or Mach 6, which is well over 7000 km per hour or around two km per second. Hypersonic speeds are those which are five times or more than the speed of sound.

Air Breathing Engines-

  • Air-breathing engines use oxygen from the atmosphere in the combustion of fuel. They include the turbojet, turboprop, ramjet, and pulse-jet.
  • This system is lighter, efficient and cost-effective than other systems in use.
  • Worldwide efforts are on to develop the technology for air-breathing engines for satellite launch vehicles.


a type of jet engine in which the air drawn in for combustion is compressed solely by the forward motion of the aircraft.


A scramjet engine is an improvement over the ramjet engine because the former operates efficiently at hypersonic speeds and allows supersonic combustion. Ramjets, in contrast, operate well at supersonic speeds around Mach 3 but their efficiency drops at hypersonic speeds.

Dual Mode Ramjet(DMRJ) :

A dual-mode ramjet (DMRJ) is a type of jet engine where a ramjet transforms into a scramjet over the mach4-8 range, which means it can efficiently operate both in subsonic and Supersonic Combustion modes.

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