A) Schemes, Policies, Initiatives, Awards and Social Issues
Formation and Promotion of Farmer Producer Organizations (FPOs) (PIB)
Context: National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation of India Limited (NAFED) has been appointed as the 4th National Implementing Agency other than SFAC, NABARD and NCDC for the creation of 10,000 FPOs by the Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers’ Welfare (DAC&FW).
- A new Central Sector Scheme to form and promote 10,000 new FPOs for five years (2019-20 to 2023-24) towards handholding of each FPO for five years from its aggregation and formation has been launched by the Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare.
- Initially, there will be three implementing Agencies to form and promote FPOs, namely:
- Small Farmers Agri-business Consortium (SFAC),
- National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC) and
- National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD).
- States may also, if so desire, nominate their Implementing Agency in consultation with DAC&FW.
- FPOs will be formed and promoted through Cluster-Based Business Organizations (CBBOs).
- Priority will be given for the formation of at least 15% of the targeted 10,000 FPOs in aspirational districts in the country with at least one FPO in each block of aspirational districts.
- FPOs will be promoted under “One District One Product” cluster to promote specialization and better processing, marketing, branding & export by FPOs.
- There will be a provision of Equity Grant for strengthening equity base of FPOs.
- States/UTs will be allowed to avail loan at prescribed concessional rate of interest under Agri-Market Infrastructure Fund (AMIF) approved for set up in NABARD for developing agriculture marketing and allied infrastructure.
- One of the focus areas of the Scheme is to promote agriculture marketing including exports through the production of quality products with the involvement of the institution of FPOs.
- FPOs should have 300 minimum number of members in case of plain areas; while in case of North-East and Hilly areas, it shall be 100 to avail the benefit under the scheme.
Farmer Producer Organization (FPO)
- FPO is a generic name, which means and includes farmer- producers’ organization incorporated/ registered either under Part IXA of Companies Act or under Co-operative Societies Act of the concerned States and formed for the purpose of leveraging collectives through economies of scale in production and marketing of agricultural and allied sector.
- However, FPOs registered under Cooperative Societies Act of the State for the purpose of this Scheme, is to be insulated from all kinds of interference including in the election process and day-today management through suitable provisioning in their Memorandum of Association and Bye-laws with a view to encouraging healthy growth and development of FPO.
- The central schemes are divided into central sector schemes and centrally sponsored schemes (CSS).
What is a Central Sector Scheme?
- Central sector schemes are schemes with 100% funding by the Central government and implemented by the Central Government machinery.
- The central sector schemes are formulated on subjects mainly from the Union List.
- Besides, there are some other programs that various Central Ministries implement directly in States and UTs which also come under Central Sector Schemes.
- In these schemes, the financial resources are not shifted to states.
What are Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS)?
- CCS are schemes that are implemented by state governments but are largely funded by the Central Government with a defined State Government share.
- Historically, CSS is the way through which central government helps states to run its Plans financially.
- They are basically special purpose grants (or loans) extended by Central Government to states to encourage them to plan and implement programmes that help attain national goals and objectives.
- CSS are basically extended by the Central Government to States under Article 282 of the Constitution.
- It mainly covers items listed in states list.
B) Economic Developments: India and World
2.UNDP and Invest India launch the SDG Investor Map for India (PIB)
Context: UNDP and Invest India have launched the SDG Investor Map for India, laying out 18 Investment Opportunities Areas (IOAs) in six critical Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) enabling sectors.
- SDG Investor Map for India aims to understand how best the SDG financing gap can be narrowed in India.
- By mapping the overlaps and gaps between public sector priorities and private sector interest, the SDG Investor Map lays out pathways that can bring together private-sector investment and public sector support for 6 SDG-enabling sectors including:
- Agriculture & Allied Activities,
- Financial Services,
- Renewable Energy & Alternatives and
- Sustainable Environment.
- Notable IOAs include:
- ‘Online Supplementary Education for K12’ (Education),
- ‘Tech-Enabled Remote Care Services’ (Healthcare),
- ‘Digital Platforms to service input/output needs of farmers to enable easy access to markets’ (Agriculture) and
- ‘Access to credit by Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises and Low-Income Groups especially through digital platforms for Income Generating Purposes’ (Financial Services).
Key highlights of the SDG Investor Map:
- Of the 18 IOAs identified, 10 are already mature investable areas that have seen robust Private Equity and Venture Capital activity, and feature companies that have been able to unlock scale and demonstrate profitability.
- The remaining eight IOAs are emerging opportunities, which have seen traction from early-stage investors.
- The map has also identified eight White Spaces, which have seen investor interest and have the potential to grow into IOAs within a 5-6-year horizon.
- However, these require further policy support and private sector participation to mature into commercially attractive IOAs.
- 84% of the IOAs have investment timeframes ranging from the short term (less than 5 years) to the medium-term (between 5- 15 years).
- 83% of the identified IOAs address job creation and industrialization needs, 70% focus on inclusive business models and 50% leverage digital technologies to deliver commercial returns and impact at scale.
Invest India: India’s national Investment Promotion & Facilitation Agency
- Invest India, set up in 2009, is a non-profit venture under the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade, Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India.
- It acts as the first point of reference for investors in India.
- As the national Investment Promotion & Facilitation Agency, Invest India focuses on sector-specific investor targeting and development of new partnerships to enable sustainable investments in India.
- In addition to a core team that focuses on sustainable investments, Invest India also partners with substantial investment promotion agencies and multilateral organizations.
- Invest India also actively works with several Indian states to build capacity as well as bring in global best practices in investment targeting, promotion and facilitation areas.
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
- The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the UN’s global development network that helps developing national and local capacities to achieve human development and the Sustainable Development Goals.
- UNDP’s work is concentrated on three main focus areas:
- Sustainable development
- Democratic governance and peacebuilding
- Climate and disaster resilience
- In all its activities, UNDP promotes gender equality and the protection of human rights.
How is UNDP related to the UN?
- UNDP is central to the United Nations Sustainable Development Group (UNSDG), a network that spans 165 countries and unites the 40 UN funds, programmes, specialized agencies and other bodies working to advance the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
- Chaired by the Deputy Secretary-General and with UNDP Administrator as Vice-Chair, the UNSDG provides strategic direction and oversight to ensure UNDS entities deliver coherent, effective and efficient support to countries in their pursuit of sustainable development.
- UNDP participates in 66 “Delivering as One” initiatives which enable UN Country Teams to operate more coherently, effectively and efficiently, minimizing transaction costs, reducing duplication and scaling up common approaches and joint initiatives.
- UNDP also reinforces joint action on development in such forums as the Economic and Social Council and the General Assembly of the United Nations.
Where is UNDP located?
- UNDP has its headquarters in New York City, but works primarily through its offices in about 170 countries and territories.
When and how did UNDP come into being?
- UNDP is based on the merging of the United Nations Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance, created in 1949, and the United Nations Special Fund, established in 1958.
- UNDP, as we know it now, was established in 1965 by the General Assembly of the United Nations.
What is the Human Development Report?
- The annual Human Development Reportis UNDP’s flagship independent publication.
- Its editorial autonomy is guaranteed by a special resolution of the General Assembly, which recognizes the Human Development Report as “an independent intellectual exercise” and “an important tool for raising awareness about human development around the world”.
C) International Relations
3.Trilateral Maritime Security Cooperation talks (TH)
- National Security Adviser of India will be in Colombo for trilateral discussions among India, Sri Lanka and the Maldives.
- This latest meeting of the Indian Ocean neighbors marks the resumption of the NSA-level trilateral Maritime Security Cooperation talks, after six years. The last such discussion was held in New Delhi in March 2014.
- The initiative began in 2011 and top officials met regularly until New Delhi’s relations with the former Abdulla Yameen administration in Male deteriorated.
- Significantly, the meeting comes months after the Maldives signed a defence deal with the U.S.
D) Polity, Bills, Acts and Judgments
4.Preamble of the Constitution (TH)
Context: President Ram Nath Kovind led the nation in a community reading of the Preamble to the Constitution on Constitution Day (26th November).
- The American Constitution was the first to begin with a Preamble.
- The term ‘Preamble’ refers to the introduction or preface to the Constitution.
- It contains the summary or essence of the Constitution.
- A. Palkhivala, an eminent jurist and constitutional expert, called the Preamble as the ‘identity card of the Constitution.’
- The Preamble to the Indian Constitution is based on the ‘Objectives Resolution’, drafted and moved by Pandit Nehru, and adopted by the Constituent Assembly.
- The ‘Objectives Resolution’ was moved by Nehru on December 13, 1946 and adopted by the Constituent Assembly on January 22, 1947.
- It has been amended by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act (1976), which added three new words–Socialist, Secular and Integrity.
Text of the Preamble
- The Preamble in its present form reads:
“We, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:
JUSTICE, Social, Economic and Political;
LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all;
FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;
IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION”.
Ingredients of the Preamble
- The Preamble reveals four ingredients or components:
- 1. Source of authority of the Constitution: The Preamble states that the Constitution derives its authority from the people of India.
- 2. Nature of Indian State: It declares India to be of a sovereign, socialist, secular democratic and republican polity.
- 3. Objectives of the Constitution: It specifies justice, liberty, equality and fraternity as the objectives.
- 4. Date of adoption of the Constitution: It stipulates November 26, 1949, as the date.
Keywords in the Preamble
- The word ‘sovereign’ implies that India is neither a dependency nor a dominion of any other nation, but an independent state.
- Till the passage of the Indian Independence Act, 1947, India was a dependency (colony) of the British Empire.
- From August 15, 1947 to January 26, 1950, India’s political status was that of a dominion in the British Commonwealth of Nations.
- India ceased to be a British dominion on January 26, 1950, by declaring herself a sovereign republic.
- However, Pakistan continued to be a British Dominion until 1956.
- There is no authority above it, and it is free to conduct its own affairs (both internal and external).
- Though in 1949, India declared the continuation of her full membership of the Commonwealth of Nations and accepted the British Crown as the head of the Commonwealth, this extra-constitutional declaration does not affect India’s sovereignty in any manner.
- Further, India’s membership of the United Nations Organisation (UNO) also in no way constitutes a limitation on her sovereignty.
- India became a member of the UNO in 1945.
- Being a sovereign state, India can either acquire a foreign territory or cede a part of its territory in favour of a foreign state.
- Even before the term was added by the 42nd Amendment in 1976, the Constitution had a socialist content in the form of certain Directive Principles of State Policy.
- In other words, what was hitherto implicit in the Constitution has now been made explicit.
- Moreover, the Congress party itself adopted a resolution to establish a ‘socialistic pattern of society’ in its Avadi session as early as in 1955 and took measures accordingly.
- Notably, the Indian brand of socialism is a ‘democratic socialism’ and not a ‘communistic socialism’ (also known as ‘state socialism’) which involves the nationalization of all means of production and distribution and the abolition of private property.
- Democratic socialism, on the other hand, holds faith in a ‘mixed economy’ where both public and private sectors co-exist side by
- As the Supreme Court says, ‘Democratic socialism aims to end poverty, ignorance, disease and inequality of opportunity.
- Indian socialism is a blend of Marxism and Gandhism, leaning heavily towards Gandhian socialism.
- The new Economic Policy (1991) of liberalization, privatization, and globalization has, however, diluted the socialist credentials of the Indian State.
- The term ‘secular’ too was added by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act of 1976.
- However, as the Supreme Court said in 1974, although the words ‘secular state’ were not expressedly mentioned in the Constitution, there can be no doubt that Constitution makers wanted to establish such a state and accordingly Articles 25 to 28 (guaranteeing the fundamental right to freedom of religion) have been included in the constitution.
- The Indian Constitution embodies the positive concept of secularism i.e., all religions in our country (irrespective of their strength) have the same status and support from the state.
- A democratic polity, as stipulated in the Preamble, is based on the doctrine of popular sovereignty, that is, possession of supreme power by the people.
- Democracy is of two types–direct and indirect. In direct democracy, the people exercise their supreme power directly as is the case in Switzerland.
- There are four devices of direct democracy, namely, Referendum, Initiative, Recall and Plebiscite.
- Referendum is a procedure whereby a proposed legislation is referred to the electorate for settlement by their direct votes.
- Initiative is a method by means of which the people can propose a bill to the legislature for enactment.
- Recall is a method by means of which the voters can remove a representative or an officer before the expiry of his term, when he fails to discharge his duties properly.
- Plebiscite is a method of obtaining the opinion India’s of people on any issue of public importance. It is generally used to solve the territorial disputes.
- In indirect democracy, on the other hand, the representatives elected by the people exercise the supreme power and thus carry on the government and make the laws.
- This type of democracy, also known as representative democracy, is of two kinds–parliamentary and presidential.
- The Indian Constitution provides for representative parliamentary democracy under which the executive is responsible to the legislature for all its policies and actions.
- Universal adult franchise, periodic elections, rule of law, independence of judiciary, and absence of discrimination on certain grounds are the manifestations of the democratic character of the Indian polity.
- The term ‘democratic’ is used in the Preamble in the broader sense embracing not only political democracy but also social and economic democracy.
- The term ‘republic’ in our Preamble indicates that India has an elected head called the president.
- He is elected indirectly for a fixed period of five years.
- A republic also means two more things:
- one, vesting of political sovereignty in the people and not in a single individual like a king;
- second, the absence of any privileged class and hence all public offices being opened to every citizen without any discrimination.
- The term ‘justice’ in the Preamble embraces three distinct forms–social, economic and political, secured through various provisions of Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles.
- Social justice denotes the equal treatment of all citizens without any social distinction based on caste, colour, race, religion, sex and so on.
- It means absence of privileges being extended to any particular section of the society, and improvement in the conditions of backward classes (SCs, STs and OBCs) and women.
- Economic justice denotes the non-discrimination between people on the basis of economic factors.
- It involves the elimination of glaring inequalities in wealth, income and property.
- A combination of social justice and economic justice denotes what is known as ‘distributive justice’.
- Political justice implies that all citizens should have equal political rights, equal access to all political offices and equal voice in the government.
- The ideal of justice–social, economic and political–has been taken from the Russian Revolution (1917).
- The term ‘liberty’ means the absence of restraints on the activities of individuals, and at the same time, providing opportunities for the development of individual personalities.
- The Preamble secures to all citizens of India liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship, through their Fundamental Rights, enforceable in court of law, in case of violation.
- The liberty conceived by the Preamble or Fundamental Rights is not absolute but qualified.
- The ideals of liberty, equality and fraternity in our Preamble have been taken from the French Revolution (1789–1799).
- The term ‘equality’ means the absence of special privileges to any section of the society, and the provision of adequate opportunities for all individuals without any discrimination.
- The Preamble secures to all citizens of India equality of status and opportunity.
- This provision embraces three dimensions of equality–civic, political and economic.
- The following provisions of the chapter on Fundamental Rights ensure civic equality:
- (a) Equality before the law (Article 14).
- (b) Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race,
- caste, sex or place of birth (Article 15).
- (c) Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment
- (Article 16).
- (d) Abolition of untouchability (Article 17).
- (e) Abolition of titles (Article 18).
- There are two provisions in the Constitution that seek to achieve political equality.
- One, no person is to be declared ineligible for inclusion in electoral rolls on grounds of religion, race, caste or sex (Article 325).
- Two, elections to the Lok Sabha and the state assemblies to be on the basis of adult suffrage (Article 326).
- The Directive Principles of State Policy (Article 39) secures to men and women equal right to an adequate means of livelihood and equal pay for equal work.
- Fraternity means a sense of brotherhood.
- The Constitution promotes this feeling of fraternity by the system of single citizenship.
- Also, the Fundamental Duties (Article 51-A) say that it shall be the duty of every citizen of India to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic, regional or sectional diversities.
- The Preamble declares that fraternity has to assure two things–
- the dignity of the individual and
- the unity and integrity of the nation.
- The word ‘integrity’ has been added to the preamble by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment (1976).
- The phrase ‘dignity of the individual’ signifies that the Constitution not only ensures material betterment and maintain a democratic set-up, but that it also recognises that the personality of every individual is sacred.
- This is highlighted through some of the provisions of the Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of State Policy, which ensure the dignity of individuals.
- Further, the Fundamental Duties (Article 51-A) also protect the dignity of women by stating that it shall be the duty of every citizen of India to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women, and also makes it the duty of every citizen of India to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.
- The phrase ‘unity and integrity of the nation’ embraces both the psychological and territorial dimensions of national integration.
- Article 1 of the Constitution describes India as a ‘Union of States’ to make it clear that the states have no right to secede from the Union, implying the indestructible nature of the Indian Union.
Significance of the Preamble
- The Preamble embodies the basic philosophy and fundamental values–political, moral and religious–on which the Constitution is based.
Preamble as part of the Constitution
- One of the controversies about the Preamble is as to whether it is a part of the Constitution or not.
- In the Berubari Union case (1960), the Supreme Court specifically opined that Preamble is not a part of the Constitution.
- In the Kesavananda Bharati case (1973), the Supreme Court rejected the earlier opinion and held that Preamble is a part of the Constitution.
- In the LIC of India case (1995) also, the Supreme Court again held that the Preamble is an integral part of the Constitution.
- The Preamble shows the general purposes behind the several provisions in the Constitution, and is thus a key to the minds of the makers of the Constitution.
- Further, where the terms used in any article are ambiguous or capable of more than one meaning, some assistance at interpretation may be taken from the objectives enshrined in the Preamble.
- Like any other part of the Constitution, the Preamble was also enacted by the Constituent Assembly; but, after the rest of the Constitution was already enacted.
- The reason for inserting the Preamble at the end was to ensure that it was in conformity with the Constitution as adopted by the Constituent Assembly.
- However, two things should be noted:
- 1. The Preamble is neither a source of power to legislature nor a prohibition upon the powers of legislature.
- 2. It is non-justiciable, that is, its provisions are not enforceable in courts of law.
Amenability of the Preamble
- The question as to whether the Preamble can be amended under Article 368 of the Constitution arose for the first time in the historic Kesavananda Bharati case (1973).
- The Supreme Court held that the Preamble is a part of the Constitution and held that the Preamble can be amended, subject to the condition that no amendment is done to the ‘basic features’.
- In other words, the Court held that the basic elements or the fundamental features of the Constitution as contained in the Preamble cannot be altered by an amendment under Article 368.
- The Preamble has been amended only once so far, in 1976, by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act, which has added three new words–Socialist, Secular and Integrity–to the Preamble. This amendment was held to be valid.
E) Science and Technology, Defence, Space
5.BrahMos Missile Featuring Indigenous Booster Successfully Flight Tested (IE)
Context: BrahMos surface-to-surface supersonic cruise missile featuring indigenous Booster and Airframe Section along with many other ‘Made in India’ sub-systems was successfully flight tested for designated range.
- It is one more major step in enhancing the indigenous content.
- The BrahMos Land-Attack Cruise Missile (LACM) was cruising at a top speed of Mach 2.8.
- Today’s successful launch has paved the way for the serial production of the indigenous booster and other indigenous components of the powerful BrahMos Weapon System realising Atmanirbhar Bharat pledge.
- The name BrahMos is formed from the names of two rivers, the Brahmaputra of India and the Moskva of Russia.
- It was developed as a joint venture between India and Russia.
- BrahMos is a two-stage supersonic (denoting a speed greater than that of sound) cruise missile that is first test-fired in June, 2001.
- It has been demonstrated in various configurations in land-attack, anti-ship and from the air.
- The Army and the Navy have already inducted the missile, while the air-launched variant is undergoing trials.
- It has a strike range of around 290 km and is described as the world’s fastest supersonic cruise missile.
- It is a two stage missile with a solid propellant booster engine as its first stage which brings it to supersonic speed and then gets separated.
- The liquid ramjet or the second stage then takes the missile closer to 3 Mach speed in cruise phase.
- It carries a conventional warhead weighing 200 to 300 kgs.
- It is the first supersonic cruise missile known to be in service.
- Universal for multiple platforms
- Fire and forget principle of operation
- High supersonic speed all through the flight
- Long flight range with varieties of flight trajectories
- Low radar signature
- Shorter flight times leading to lower target dispersion and quicker engagement
- Pin point accuracy with high lethal power aided by large kinetic energy on impact
- Stealth technology and guidance system with advanced software
- Non-interception with any known system in the world
Electronic Vaccine Intelligence Network (eVIN)
Context: Prime Minister held a video conference with heads of all the states and Union territories to discuss their preparedness on Covid-19 vaccination programme in India.
- During the conference, it was informed that the government is using eVIN – Electronic Vaccine Intelligence Network in association with the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) to identify primary beneficiaries and vaccine distribution networks.
- Electronic Vaccine Intelligence Network is an indigenously developed technology that digitises vaccine stocks and monitors the temperature of the cold chain through a smartphone application.
Covered in Detail: Refer 14th October 2020 Daily Currrent Affairs File.
F) Art, Culture and History
7.Shahi Jata (PIB)
Context: Lok Virasat: a festival of films on folk art displayed documentary on Shahi Jata.
- This festival, however, limited only to the Sahis or particular streets near Jagannath Temple in Puri, is on the verge of extinction.
- Sahi Jata is the ancient open-air street theatre of Puri (Orissa)
- It is enacted by artistes belonging to different bylanes (sahis) of Puri.
- Since the 12th-century, the old city of Puri has been filled with a number of jagas (community halls) and akhadas (gymnasiums).
- These traditional institutions imparted martial, military knowledge by day and the tired men would revel in the arts by night and so a unique culture surrounding the jaga–akhadas evolved, a product of which is the 800-year old Sahi Jata of Puri.
- Sahi Jata begins a day before Ram Navami. It involves two phases — a martial arts show and depiction of an episode of Ramayana.
- The Choda Ganga kings had begun this tradition of common people practicing martial arts to protect Jagannath temple from attacks
- The Sahi Jata is annually performed in the nights of the month of Chaitra (March- April), and it covers the Ramayana story in several scattered bits and pieces.
- All the characters tie huge decorative structures called medhas behind them.
- These medhas are also superfine examples of Puri’s solapitha craft. To walk through the seven ancient streets or sahis of Puri and dance with such huge and bulky medhas is no small thing.
- Although it has characters from the Ramayana, the Sahi Jata is more about the pure stylistic dance performed in the streets than the dialogue.
- The festival lasts around 10 days.
Bhavai – a folk art of Gujarat (PIB)
Context: Lok Virasat: a festival of films on folk art displayed documentary on Bhavai.
- ‘Bhavai’ – a unique stage art form, performed with ‘Bhava’, meaning expression revealing emotions.
- It’s real meaning is made up of two words – Bhava and Aai. Bhava means universe and aai is mother, together it means mother of the universe, Amba.
- Exclusively performed by male members in various costumes and character forms .
- Bhavai is mostly held in open space. Women are mere audience to the ‘Bhavai’ performance as this folk dance play is strictly performed by males in women’s role too.
- Traditionally, most popular theme of ‘Ramleela’ was performed earlier at places in Gujarat based on Ramayana and Mahabharata which was on pre-existing mythological or historical themes that were familiar to the audience of bygone era.
- However, Bhavai has gained popularity with change of time as medium of entertainment. It is a kind of ritual offering made to Goddess Amba. In the courtyard of the Ambaji temple near Mount Abu the Navratri festival is celebrated with Bhavai performances. Amba is the presiding deity of Bhavai.
- Bhavai plays in Gujarat, also convey social messages through its play based on Humour form, which reflect on social stigmas i.e. injustice, criticism, caste differences or just about any topic that calls for a concern.
- The chief of the Bhavai Troupe is the ‘Nayak’ and he remains on the stage directing the course of action with commentary and intervention along with gestures.
- The script unfolds through dialogues, songs, speeches in prose and verse with a lot of singing and dancing. The main humour is of ‘Ranglo’ and ‘Ranglee’ which attract the audience.
- Bhavai evolved into one of Gujarat’s energitic folk music and drama.
- Bhavai is mainly performed by the Targala community also known as Bhavaya; they hail from both the Hindu and Muslim communities. Three clans – Janoya, Maratha and Turki – exist among them, of which Janoyas are Hindu Bhavayas while Marathas and Turkis are Muslim Bhavayas.
- Bhavai troupes travel in small groups of 15-20 from one place to another to perform. The leader of the group is known as Nayak. Bhavai plays in Gujarat also convey social messages that reflect on social stigmas like injustice, caste differences or any topic of concern, through the medium of humour.
- Sanedo is yet another striking resemblance to Bhavai with topics that can be anything from Romance, Youth or Satire. Sung at Navratri festivals and weddings, it’s origin is from Patan in Gujarat.