Daily Current Affairs

25TH NOVEMBER,2020 : MOST POWERFUL DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS CONCEPTS

UPSC PRELIMS+MAINS  

A) Polity, Bills, Acts and Judgments

1. 80th All India Presiding Officers’ Conference (TH)

  • Context: This year is being celebrated as the centenary year of the Presiding Officers’ Conference.

Analysis

  • The All India Presiding Officers’ Conference began in 1921.
  • The theme for this year’s conference is “Harmonious coordination between Legislature, Executive and Judiciary- Key to a Vibrant Democracy.”
  • The event, also known as the Speakers’ Conference, will end on the Constitution Day (November 26).
  • Lok Sabha Speaker is the chairperson of the conference.

Constitution Day

  • On this day 70 years ago — November 26, 1949 — the Constituent Assembly of India adopted our Constitution.
  • Since 2015, this day has been observed as the Constitution Day of India, also known as Samvidhan Divas.
  • The Constitution came into effect two months later, on January 26, 1950 — celebrated as Republic Day.
  • In 2015, the Union Government announced that November 26 would be observed as Constitution Day to promote “constitutional values amongst citizens”.
  • This was the year that marked the 125th birth anniversary of Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar, the Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Constitution.
  • Before this, the day was observed as National Law Day. Ambedkar was also the first Law Minister of India.

Constituent Assembly

  • The Constituent Assembly, the body set up to draft the Constitution of India, held its first session on December 9, 1946, and was attended by 207 members, including nine women.
  • Initially, the Assembly had 389 members; however, after Independence and Partition, its strength was reduced to 299.
  • The Assembly took over three years to draft the Constitution, spending over 114 days considering the content of the draft alone.
  • On December 13, 1946, Jawaharlal Nehru moved the “Objectives Resolution” that was unanimously adopted as the Preamble on January 22, 1947.
  • The Drafting Committee, chaired by Ambedkar, was one among over 17 committees of the Constituent Assembly.
  • The last session of the Constituent Assembly ended on November 26, 1949 when the Constitution was adopted.
  • It came into effect on January 26 the following year after 284 members signed it.
  • January 26 was chosen since the Poorna Swaraj resolution of the Indian National Congress was declared on this day in 1930.
  • In 1934, the demand of the Constituent Assembly was made. M.N. Roy, a communist party leader, was the first who mooted the idea.
  • Indians were allowed to draft the Indian Constitution in the August offer.

B) Agriculture, Geography, Environment and Biodiversity

2. National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) and Structure of disaster response in India (PIB)

  • Context: Cyclone “NIVAR” is expected to cross Tamil Nadu and Puducherry coasts between Karaikal and Mamallapuram around Puducherry during late evening of 25th November, as a severe cyclonic storm.
Type of Disturbances Associated Wind Speed in the Circulation
Low pressure Area Less than17 knots (<31 kmph)
Depression 17 to 27 knots (31 to 49 kmph)
Deep Depression 28 to 33 knots (50 to 61 kmph)
Cyclonic Storm 34 to 47 knots (62 to 88 kmph)
Severe Cyclonic Storm 48 to 63 knots (89 to 118 kmph)
Very Severe Cyclonic Storm 64 to 119 knots (119 to 221 kmph)
Super Cyclonic Storm 119 knots and above (221 kmph and above)

 Analysis

  • National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) HQ and Commandants of battalions located at Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh are in coordination with the respective state authorities.

National Disaster Response Force (NDRF)

  • It was constituted in 2006 under the Disaster Management Act for the purpose of specialized response to natural and man-made disasters.
  • As per National Policy on Disaster Management 2009, the State Governments are also required to raise their own SDRF for quickly responding to disasters.
  • At present, National Disaster Response Force consist of 12 battalions, three each from the BSF and CRPF and two each from CISF, ITBP and SSB.
  • All the 12 battalions have been equipped and trained to respond natural as well as man-made disasters.
  • Battalions are also trained and equipped for response during chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) emergencies.
  • In the beginning, the personnel of NDRF were deployed for routine law and order duties also but in 2007 it has been made a dedicated force for disaster response related duties.
  • The first major test of disaster for NDRF was Kosi Floods in 2008.
  • It functions under the Ministry of Home Affairs.

Locations of NDRF BNs

  • These NDRF battalions are located at 12 different locations in the country based on the vulnerability profile of country and to cut down the response time for their deployment at disaster site.
  • Guwahati
  • Haringhata
  • Mundali
  • Arakkonam
  • Pune
  • Vadodara
  • Bhathinda
  • Ghaziabaad
  • Patna
  • Vijayawada
  • Varanasi
  • Doimukh

What is a disaster?

  • The Disaster Management Act defines “disaster” to mean:
  • a catastrophe, mishap, calamity or grave occurrence in any area,
  • arising from natural or man-made causes, or by accident or negligence
  • which results in substantial loss of life or human suffering or damage to, and destruction of, property, or damage to, or degradation of, environment, and
  • is of such a nature or magnitude as to be beyond the coping capacity of the community of the affected area.

Structure of disaster response in India:

National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)

  • The NDMA, as the apex body for disaster management, is headed by the Prime Minister.
  • The general superintendence, direction and control of the National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) is vested in the NDMA.
  • The National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) works within the framework of broad policies and guidelines laid down by the NDMA.
  • The NDMA is mandated to deal with all types of disasters; natural or man-made.
  • Whereas, such other emergencies including those requiring close involvement of the security forces and/or intelligence agencies such as terrorism (counter-insurgency), law and order situations, serial bomb blasts, hijacking, air accidents, CBRN weapon systems, mine disasters, port and harbour emergencies, forest fires, oilfield fires and oil spills will continue to be handled by the extant mechanism i.e., National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC).

National Executive Committee (NEC)

  • It is the executive committee of NDMA.
  • It is headed by the Union Home secretary.

State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA)

  • The SDMA, as the apex body for disaster management at the State level, is headed by the Chief Minister.
  • The State Executive Committee (NEC) is the executive committee of SDMA. It is headed by the Chief Secretary to the State Government.

District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA)

  • The DDMA will be headed by the District Collector, Deputy Commissioner or District Magistrate as the case may be, with the elected representative of the local authority as the Co-Chairperson.

Cyclonic Storm – Four Stage Warning

  • The cyclone warnings are issued to state government officials in four stages.
  • The First Stage warning known as “PRE CYCLONE Watch” issued 72 hours in advance contains early warning about the development of a cyclonic disturbance in the north Indian Ocean, its likely intensification into a tropical cyclone and the coastal belt likely to experience adverse weather.
  • This early warning bulletin is issued by the Director General of Meteorology himself and is addressed to the Cabinet Secretary and other senior officers of the Government of India including the Chief Secretaries of concerned maritime states.
  • The Second Stage warning known as “CYCLONE ALERT” is issued at least 48 hrs. in advance of the expected commencement of adverse weather over the coastal areas.
  • This is issued by the concerned Area Cyclone Warning Centers/Cyclone Warning Centers and Cyclone Warning Division at HQ.
  • The Third Stage warning known as “CYCLONE Warning” is issued at least 24 hours in advance of the expected commencement of adverse weather over the coastal areas.
  • Landfall point is forecast at this stage.
  • The Fourth Stage of warning known as “POST LANDFALL OUTLOOK” is issued by the concerned ACWCs/CWCs/and CWD at HQ at least 12 hours in advance of expected time of landfall.
  • It gives likely direction of movement of the cyclone after its landfall and adverse weather likely to be experienced in the interior areas.
  • Different colour codes are being used for the different stages of the cyclone warning bulletins.
  • Stage of warning Colour code
  • Cyclone Alert                 Yellow
  • Cyclone Warning           Orange
  • Post Landfall Outlook     Red
  • The special warnings are issued for fishermen four times a day in normal weather and every three hourly in accordance with the four stage warning in case of disturbed weather.

National Disaster Response Fund was covered in the 16th Nov file.

C) Schemes/Policies/Initiatives/Social Issues

3. Mega Food Park Scheme (PIB)

  • It was covered in 2nd Oct file.

4. National Nutrition Mission or the Poshan Abhiyaan (TH)

  • Context: The National Nutrition Mission or the Poshan Abhiyaan, the world’s largest nutrition programme for children and mothers, must be stepped up to meet the targets set by the Centre to reduce stunting, wasting and anaemia by 2022, says a report by NITI Aayog.

Analysis

  • The review report drafted in March does not factor worsening poverty and hunger levels over the past seven months due to COVID-19, which is expected to dent strides made since 2018 to achieve nutritional targets.
  • More than a third of the children under five face stunting and wasting and 40% aged between one and four are anaemic.
  • Over 50% of pregnant and other women were found to be anaemic, said the National Family Health Survey 4 released in 2016.
  • The government’s policy think tank warns, “We need to now accelerate actions on multiple fronts. We need to quickly graduate to a POSHAN-plus strategy which apart from continued strengthening the four pillars of the Abhiyaan also requires renewed focus on other social determinants in addition to addressing the governance challenges of NHM/ICDS delivery mechanisms,” notes the NITI Aayog’s third progress report on the Nutrition Mission.
  • The report calls for a need to lay as much emphasis on complementary feeding as it does on breastfeeding, which it points out can help avert 60% of the total stunting cases in India.
  • On stunting, the review says that India’s targets are conservative as compared to the global target defined by the World Health Assembly (WHA), which is a prevalence rate of 5% of stunting as opposed to India’s goal of reducing stunting levels to 13.3% by 2022.
  • The target of reducing prevalence levels of anaemia among pregnant women from 50.3% in 2016 to 34.4% in 2022 and among adolescent girls from 52.9% in 2016 to 39.66%, is also considered conservative.

Child & Adolescent Health 

  • Two-thirds deaths in children under five years in India are still attributable to malnutrition, according to a report Child & Adolescent Health” by the India State-Level Disease Burden Initiative and is highest in Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Assam, followed by Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Nagaland and Tripura.
  • The report says the overall under-five death rate and the death rate due to malnutrition has decreased substantially from 1990 to 2017, but malnutrition is still the leading risk factor for death in children under five years, and is also the leading risk factor for disease burden for all ages considered together in most States.
  • Low birth weight needs particular policy attention in India as it is the biggest contributor to child death among all malnutrition indications and its rate of decline is among the lowest.
  • Another important revelation is that overweight among a subset of children is becoming a significant public health problem as it is increasing rapidly across all States.
  • The India State-Level Disease Burden Initiative is a joint initiative of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Public Health Foundation of India, and Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation in collaboration with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare along with experts and stakeholders associated with over 100 Indian institutions, involving many leading health scientists and policy makers from India.

Malnutrition (as per WHO)

  • Malnutrition refers to deficiencies, excesses, or imbalances in a person’s intake of energy and/or nutrients.
  • The term malnutrition addresses 3 broad groups of conditions:
  • undernutrition, which includes wasting (low weight-for-height), stunting (low height-for-age) and underweight (low weight-for-age);
  • micronutrient-related malnutrition, which includes micronutrient deficiencies (a lack of important vitamins and minerals) or micronutrient excess; and
  • overweight, obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases (such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes and some cancers).

What needs to be done?

  • For substantial improvements across the malnutrition indicators, States will need to implement an integrated nutrition policy to effectively address the broader determinants of under-nutrition across the life cycle.
  • Focus will be needed on major determinants like provision of clean drinking water, reducing rates of open defecation, improving women’s educational status, and food and nutrition security for the most vulnerable families.

National Nutrition Mission (Poshan Abhiyaan)

  • Poshan Abhiyaan, the world’s largest nutrition programme, expected to benefit 10 crore people, aims at improving the nutritional status of Children from 0-6 years, Adolescent Girls, Pregnant Women and Lactating Mothers.
  • It was launched on the occasion of the International Women’s Day on 8 March, 2018 from Jhunjhunu in Rajasthan.
  • There are a number of schemes directly/indirectly affecting the nutritional status of children (0-6 years age) and pregnant women and lactating mothers.
  • Inspite of these, level of malnutrition and related problems in the country is high.
  • There is no dearth of schemes but lack of creating synergy and linking the schemes with each other to achieve common goal.
  • NNM through robust convergence mechanism and other components would strive to create the synergy.
  • NNM targets to reduce stunting, under-nutrition, anaemia (among young children, women and adolescent girls) and reduce low birth weight by 2%, 2%, 3% and 2% per annum respectively.
  • Although the target to reduce Stunting is atleast 2% p.a., the Mission would strive to achieve reduction in Stunting from 38.4% (NFHS-4) to 25% by 2022 (Mission 25 by 2022).
  • A low weight-for-height is called wasting and a low height-for-age is called
  • The Mission is being implemented by the Ministry of Women and Child Development.
  • NITI Aayog has been entrusted with the task of closely monitoring the POSHAN Abhiyaan and undertaking periodic evaluations.
  • As a part of its mandate, NITI Aayog is required to submit implementation status reports of POSHAN Abhiyaan every six months to the PMO.
  • For implementation of POSHAN Abhiyaan the four-point strategy/pillars of the mission are:
  • Inter-sectoral convergence for better service delivery
  • Use of technology (ICT) for real time growth monitoring and tracking of women and     children
  • Intensified health and nutrition services for the first 1000 days
  • Jan Andolan
  • UNICEF provides technical support to MWCD for POSHAN Abhiyaan under Country Programme 2018-2022.

Features:

  • Mapping of various Schemes contributing towards addressing malnutrition.
  • Introducing a very robust convergence mechanism.
  • ICT based Real Time Monitoring system.
  • Incentivizing States/UTs for meeting the targets.
  • Incentivizing Anganwadi Workers (AWWs) for using IT based tools.
  • Eliminating registers used by AWWs.
  • Introducing measurement of height of children at the Anganwadi Centres (AWCs).
  • Social Audits.
  • Setting-up Nutrition Resource Centres, involving masses through Jan Andolan for their participation on nutrition through various activities, among others.
  • All the States and districts will be covered in a phased manner (315 districts in 2017-18, 235 districts in 2018-19 and remaining districts in 2019-20).
  • This will be funded by Government Budgetary Support (50%) and 50% by IBRD or other multilateral development bank (MDB).
  • A multilateral development bank (MDB) is an international financial institution chartered by two or more countries for the purpose of encouraging economic development.
  • In May 2018, it received $200mn loan from the World Bank.
  • Government budgetary support would be 60:40 between Centre and States/UTs, 90:10 for NER and Himalayan States and 100% for UTs without legislature.

‘DHATRI’ – Dedicated Health Activist to Replenish the Innutrition

  • Recently, a Memorandum of Understanding has been signed between the Ministry of AYUSH and Ministry of Women and Child Development for controlling Malnutrition as a part of POSHAN Abhiyaan.
  • The Anganwadi worker who is providing the Ayurveda nutrition message to the community at ground level may be designated as DHATRI’ – Dedicated Health Activist to Replenish the Innutrition.

Rashtriya Poshan Maah

  • To give momentum to POSHAN Abhiyan (organised by Ministry of Women and Child Development), ‘National Council on India’s Nutrition Challenges’ decided to celebrate the month of September as Rashtriya Poshan Maah.
  • During this month activities related to nutrition awareness will be carried out by all the states/UTs up to the grass root level.

National Nutrition Council on India’s Nutrition Challenges

  • As per the mandate of Government of India, Ministry of Women and Child Development (MoWCD) has constituted the National Council on India’s Nutritional Challenges (established under POSHAN Abhiyaan) under the Chairmanship of Vice-Chairman of NITI Aayog with the following objectives:
  • To provide policy directions to address India’s Nutrition Challenges through coordinated inter-sectoral action
  • To coordinate and review convergence among Ministries
  • To review programmes for nutrition on a quarterly basis
  • Food Fortification of staple food

National Nutrition Strategy

  • NITI Aayog has worked on a National Nutrition Strategy (NNS), isolated the 100 most backward districts for stunting and prioritised those for interventions.
  • Vision 2022: “Kuposhan Mukt Bharat”

Objectives and targets:

  • 3 point percentage/year reduction in underweight prevalence in children (0-3 years) by 2022 from NFHS-4 levels;
  • 1/3rd reduction in anaemia in children, adolescent & Women of Reproductive Age (WRA)

Funding (leveraging):

  • National Health Mission
  • National Nutrition Mission
  • Integrated Child Development Scheme
  • Swachh Bharat Mission
  • Increased provision of 25% flexi funds for States in Centrally sponsored schemes

Government of India is implementing various schemes and programmes to prevent malnutrition.

MoHFW under the umbrella of National Health Mission (NHM) has implemented following schemes and programmes which address the issue of malnutrition:

  • Promotion of appropriate Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) practices that include early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding till 6 months of age through ASHA worker and health care provider at health facilities.
  • In order to promote and support breastfeeding, Government has implemented “MAA- Mothers’ Absolute Affection” programme to improve breastfeeding coverage and appropriate breastfeeding practices in the country.
  • Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) for children till the age of 5 years.
  • ‘National Iron Plus Initiative’ has been launched as an effective strategy for supplementation and treatment of anaemia in children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women, in programme mode through life cycle approach.
  • National Deworming Day is a fixed day strategy to administer Albendazole tablets to all the children in the age group of 1-19 years through the platform of AWCs and Schools.
  • In order to increase awareness about the use of ORS and Zinc in diarrhoea, an Intensified Diarrhoea Control Fortnight (IDCF) is being observed during July-August, with the ultimate aim of ‘zero child deaths due to childhood diarrhoea’.
  • Incentives are provided to ASHA for tracking of Low birth weight babies.
  • Promotion for intake of iodised salt and monitoring salt quality through testing under National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme.
  • Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram (RBSK), is aimed at early identification and early intervention for children from birth to 18 years to cover 4 ‘D’s viz. Defects at birth, Deficiencies, Diseases, Development delays including disability.
  • The 0-6 years age group will be specifically managed at District Early Intervention Centre level while for 6-18 years age group, management of conditions will be done through existing public health facilities.
  • Mission Indradhanush: The objective is to ensure high coverage of children with all vaccines in identified districts with the goal of reaching the unreached to achieve 90% full immunization coverage in India.
  • Village Health and Nutrition Days and Mother and Child Protection Card are the joint initiative of the Ministry of Health & Family welfare and the Ministry of Woman and Child Development for addressing the nutrition concerns in children, pregnant women and lactating mothers.
  • Village Health and Nutrition Days (VHNDs) are monthly days held at village level in Anganwadi centre to increase the awareness and bring about desired changes in the dietary practices including the promotion of breastfeeding.

MWCD has implemented the following schemes to address malnutrition:

  • Under Umbrella ICDS scheme of MWCD Supplementary Nutrition Programme is being implemented through platform of Anganwadi Centres (AWCs) for addressing under-nutrition in pregnant and lactating women, under-6 children and out-of-school adolescent girls.
  • Recently National Nutrition Mission has been approved under MWCD for addressing malnutrition status of the country in a comprehensive manner.
  • Micro-nutrient deficiencies are also known as “hidden hunger.”

Global Burden of Disease Study 1990-2017

  • India is unlikely to meet targets set under the ambitious Poshan Abhiyaan or National Nutrition Mission (NNM) for reduction in prevalence of stunting, underweight, low birth weight and anaemia in women and children by 2022 if there is no progress achieved in improving the rate of decline observed between 1990 and 2017, according to the Global Burden of Disease Study 1990-2017.
  • The report is a joint initiative of Indian Council of Medical Research, Public Health Foundation of India (PHFI) and the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
  • A new study has also found that though the Government of India’s new initiative National Nutrition Mission (NNM) has led to a progressive decline in child malnutrition, the decline has been slow and the improvements have not been equally distributed across the population.
  • The five important malnutrition indicators are: stunting, underweight, wasting, low birth weight, and anaemia.

Understanding Malnutrition among the Children in India

  • Deaths due to severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in India could be at least a tenth of what was earlier believed, which implies that instead of taking emergency measures such as providing Ready To Use Therapeutic Food (RUTF), there needs to be a focus on non-food interventions such as sanitation, health, clean drinking water along with an emphasis on nutrition, suggests a new study.
  • There are multiple attempts to show that Severe Acute Malnutrition is an acute emergency situation and that afflicted children will either die or never “recover” unless “magical therapeutic food” (RUTF) is provided. The study has busted this myth.
  • Mortality in SAM is very low over six months to one-year period and spontaneous recovery occurs in a substantial proportion.
  • Preventive measures, apt nutrition counselling, and care for illnesses are vital aspects of SAM management.
  • The study also explains that the most vulnerable children probably died before reaching six months, which is before a child begins complementary feeding along and treatment with RUTF becomes relevant.
  • These deaths are due to pre-mature birth or low birth weight — factors that account for 46.1% of all deaths of children under five years in 2017.

Ready to Use Therapeutic Food (RUTF)

  • According to WHO, RUTF is a high-energy, micronutrient enhanced paste, a thick paste of peanuts, vegetable oil, sugar and milk powder and a complex of vitamins and minerals, used to treat children under age 5 who are affected by severe acute malnutrition.
  • As its name implies, RUTF does not need to be cooked or prepared before consumption. This makes it a practical solution where cooking facilities and fuel are limited.
  • RUTF has a long shelf life and is safe for use even in the absence of clean drinking water.

Severe Acute Malnutrition

  • Severe acute malnutrition is the most extreme and visible form of undernutrition.
  • Its face is a child – frail and skeletal – who requires urgent treatment to survive.
  • Children with severe acute malnutrition have very low weight for their height and severe muscle wasting.
  • They may also have nutritional oedema – characterized by swollen feet, face and limbs.
  • About two thirds of these children live in Asia and almost one third live in Africa.
  • Severe acute malnutrition is a major cause of death in children under 5.

5. Sahakar Pragya and National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC) (PIB)

  • Context: Union Minister for Agriculture and Farmers Welfare unveiled the Sahakar Pragya initiative launched by the National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC).

Analysis

  • As part of the initiative, 18 regional training centres and 45 training modules for primary cooperatives were launched.
  • The initiative aims at imparting knowledge and organisational skills to primary cooperative societies.
  • The NCDC will run these training centres across the country.
  • India boasts a huge network of over 8.5 lakh cooperative societies with about 290 million members.
  • Nearly 94% of the farmers in India are members of at least one cooperative society.
  • Cooperatives lend strength to farmers to minimize risks in agriculture and allied sectors and act as shield against exploitation by unscrupulous traders.
  • Sahakar Pragyais part of a series of initiatives taken up by NCDC to strengthen India’s cooperative societies.
  • Earlier, the central body had launched the Sahakar Cooptube NCDC Channel with an aim to involve youngsters in the cooperative movement.

National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC)

  • It was established by an Act of Parliament in 1963 as a statutory Corporation under the Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare.

Functions

  • Planning, promoting and financing programmes for production, processing, marketing, storage, export and import of agricultural produce, food stuffs, certain other notified commodities e.g. fertilisers, insecticides, agricultural machinery, lac, soap, kerosene oil, textile, rubber etc.
  • Supply of consumer goods and collection, processing, marketing, storage and export of minor forest produce through cooperatives, besides income generating stream of activities such as poultry, dairy, fishery, sericulture, handloom etc.
  • NCDC Act has been further amended which will broad base the area of operation of the Corporation to assist different types of cooperatives and to expand its financial base.
  • NCDC will now be able to finance projects in the rural industrial cooperative sectors and for certain notified services in rural areas like water conservation, irrigation and micro irrigation, agri-insurance, agro-credit, rural sanitation, animal health, etc.
  • Loans and grants are advanced to State Governments for financing primary and secondary level cooperative societies and direct to the national level and other societies having objects extending beyond one State.

D) Art, Culture and History

6. Lachit Diwas and the Battle of Saraighat (PIB)

  • Context: The Prime Minister paid tribute to Lachit Borphukan on Lachit Diwas today.

Analysis

  • Lachit Borphukan was Commander-in-Chief of the Army under the Ahom King, Chakradhwaj Singha.
  • He is remembered for his extraordinary victory against the Mughal army of Aurangzeb in the Battle of Saraighat.
  • Lachit Borphukan was the commander in the Battle of Saraighat which was fought in 1671 between the Mughals and the Ahom Kingdom on the Brahmaputra river at Saraighat, now in Guwahati.
  • In this battle the weaker, the Ahom Army defeated the Mughal Army by brilliant uses of the terrain, guerrilla tactics.
  • Herein it may be mentioned that Assam was the only State in India, which defeated successive attempts at invasion by the Delhi Sultans and the Mughal Emperors. The State survived 17 such invasions.
  • On 24th November each year, Lachit Divas is celebrated in Assam

E) Miscellaneous

7. Param Siddhi (PIB)

  • Param Siddhi, the high performancecomputing-artificial intelligence (HPC-AI) supercomputer established under National Supercomputing Mission (NSM) at C-DAC has achieved global ranking of 63 in TOP 500 most powerful non-distributed computer systems in the world released on 16th November 2020.
  • Note: The National Super Computing Mission (NSM) has been covered in detail in 13th October file.

3rd Global Renewable Energy Investment Meeting and Expo (RE-Invest 2020) (PIB)

  • The summit is organised by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy and will be held from 26 – 28 November 2020.

About RE-Invest 2020

  • The theme for RE-Invest 2020 is ‘Innovations for Sustainable Energy Transition’.
  • It will feature a 3-day conference on renewables and future energy choices, and an exhibition of manufacturers, developers, investors and innovators.
  • It aims to accelerate the worldwide effort to scale up development and deployment of renewable energy and connect the global investment community with Indian energy stakeholders.
  • It aims to build upon the success of the first two editions held in 2015 and 2018 and provide an international forum for investment promotion in renewable energy.

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