25th January,2021 ; Daily Current Affairs

Daily Current Affairs   Date :25th January,2021

 (30+ Questions hit in Prelims 2021 from this series)

Covers 4 Most relevant Sources

  • The Hindu
  • Indian Express
  • PIB
  • Mint


  • A) Economic Developments: India and World
  • Exports of Engineering Goods (PIB)
  • What is Carry Trade? (TH, pg 15)
  • B) Schemes, Policies, Initiatives, Awards and Social Issues
  • National Mission on Interdisciplinary Cyber-Physical Systems (NM-ICPS) (PIB)
  • Pradhan Mantri Rashtriya Bal Puraskar (TH, pg 8)
  • Central Government Health Scheme (CGHS) (TH, pg 10)
  • C) International Relations
  • Mutiny in Burkina Faso (TH, pg 11)
  • D) Polity, Bills, Acts and Judgments
  • 11th National Voters’ Day (NVD) (PIB)
  • E) Indices, Reports, Surveys, Committees and Organisations
  • Competition Commission of India (CCI) (TH, pg 12)
  • F) Art, Culture and History
  • Subhas Chandra Bose’s relationship with Nehru, Gandhi and the Congress (IE)
  • G) Science and Technology, Defence, Space
  • Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) (TH, pg 15)
  • Ct Value in a Covid-19 Test (IE)
  • H) Clever Picks (Miscellaneous)
  • Person in News: Justice Ayesha Malik (TH, pg 11)
  • National Girl Child Day (PIB)


A) Economic Developments: India and World

  1. Exports of Engineering Goods (PIB)
  • Context:Exports of Engineering Goods jumped to USD 81.8 Billion during April-December 2021 (Provisional) as compared to USD 52.9 Billion during same period in the previous year (2020), registering a stupendous growth of 54%.


  • Engineering Goods sector constitutes the largest, more than 27%, share of India’s total exports basket during the period.
  • India’s top five export destinations for the Engineering Goods sector in April-November 2021 (as per latest available data, share per cent mentioned in bracket) are: USA (14.7%), China (5.8%), UAE (5.1%), Italy (4%) & Germany (3.4%).
  • The impressive growth in Engineering Goods exports in recent years has largely been due to the Zero duty Export Promotion Capital Goods (EPCG) scheme of the Ministry of Commerce & Industry and forms part of the Foreign Trade Policy (FTP) of Government of India.
  • The scheme allows import of capital goods for pre-production, production and post-production (including Completely Knocked Down/ Semi Knocked Down thereof as well as computer software systems) at zero Customs duty, subject to an export obligation equivalent to 6 times of duty saved on capital goods imported under EPCG scheme, to be fulfilled in 6 years reckoned from Authorization issue-date.


  1. What is Carry Trade? (TH, pg 15)
  • Context: An editorial in the Hindu.


  • When interest rates differ across countries, speculators who want to make profits have a strong incentive to borrow money at low interest rates and lend the money at higher interest rates.
  • For example, if banks in the United States gave out loans at 1% while banks in China paid an interest rate of 3% to depositors, investors would borrow from U.S. banks and lend to Chinese banks to capture a nice profit. This trade is popularly known as the carry trade.
  • Generally, the proceeds would be deposited in the second currency if it offers a higher interest rate.
  • The proceeds also could be deployed into assets such as stocks, commodities, bonds, or real estate that are denominated in the second currency.
  • Such flow of capital across borders in search of higher yields would last till the interest rate difference between the two countries, after factoring in the various transaction costs, disappeared.
  • The flow of capital across borders, however, is not always desired by central banks. For instance, when capital flows into a country with high interest rates, this can cause the country’s currency to appreciate and affect the size of the country’s overall exports. So central banks often impose capital controls that limit the movement of capital across borders.


  1. B) Schemes, Policies, Initiatives, Awards and Social Issues
  2. National Mission on Interdisciplinary Cyber-Physical Systems (NM-ICPS) (PIB)
  • Context: New and emerging technologies are powering national initiatives in key areas with the help of solutions for people-centric problems being developed at the 25 innovation hubs across the country through the Ministry of Science & Technology’s National Mission on Interdisciplinary Cyber-Physical Systems (NM-ICPS).


  • Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) combines digital/ cyber elements with physical objects (e.g. machines, autonomous vehicles) and data with capabilities of communication, data collection & processing, computing, decision making and action.
  • The proposed NM-ICPS is a comprehensive Mission aimed at complete convergence with all stakeholders by establishing strong linkages between academia, industry, Government and International Organizations.
  • The Mission will be implemented through 25 number of Technology Innovation Hubs (TIHs) to be established as part of the Mission in the top academic and National R&D Institutes. Hubs will be the platform for executing all Mission activities.


  1. Pradhan Mantri Rashtriya Bal Puraskar (TH, pg 8)
  • Context: Twenty-nine children were given the Pradhan Mantri Rashtriya Bal Puraskar for their exceptional achievements in innovation, social science, education, sports, arts and culture and for demonstrating bravery. They were given digital certificates using blockchain technology.


  • Pradhan Mantri Rashtriya Bal Puraskar, instituted by the Ministry of Women and Child Development (WCD) to felicitate meritorious children, individuals and institutions of the country, is given under two categories i.e., Bal Shakti Puraskar and Bal Kalyan Puraskar.
  • The Bal Shakti Puraskar (National Child Award) aims to give recognition to children who have made extraordinary achievements in various fields including innovation, scholastic, sports, art and culture, social service and bravery, whereas the Bal Kalyan Puraskar (National Child Welfare Awards) is given as recognition to individuals and institutions, who have made an outstanding contribution towards service for children in the field of child development, child protection and child welfare.
  • These awards are given by the President of India on the week preceding Republic Day every year.
  • The Prime Minister also felicitates the awardees, who participate in Republic Day Parade on the 26th January at Rajpath in New Delhi.
  • Who is eligible for applying for Bal Shakti Puraskar?
  • A Child who is an Indian Citizen and residing in India can apply for Bal Shakti Puraskar.
  • Child should be above the age of 05 years and not exceeding 18 years.
  • No minimum qualification is required for applying/recommending.
  • Cannot be awarded twice, even in different years.


  1. Central Government Health Scheme (CGHS) (TH, pg 10)
  • Context: Union Minister for Health and Family Welfare digitally launched the revamped CGHS (Central Government Health Scheme) website and mobile app, “MyCGHS”.


  • The Central Government Health Scheme (CGHS) is the nodal healthcare provider to Central Government employees, pensioners and certain other category of beneficiaries and their dependents enrolled under the scheme.
  • It caters to the healthcare needs of eligible beneficiaries covering all four pillars of democratic set up in India namely Legislature, Judiciary, Executive and Press and is unique of its kind due to the large volume of its beneficiary base and pan India presence providing healthcare through allopathic as well as indigenous systems of medicine.
  • In order to cater to India’s increasing digital penetration, CGHS has laid emphasis on delivery of services through various online channels.


C) International Relations

  1. Mutiny in Burkina Faso (TH, pg 11)
  • Context:Mutinous troops in restive Burkina Faso arrested President Roch Marc Christian Kabore and detained him in army barracks a day after staging an uprising.


  • Soldiers at several army bases across the country rebelled, demanding the sacking of the military top brass and more resources to fight a bloody jihadist insurgency.
  • Just before the coup, police in Ouagadougou had clashed with demonstrators at a banned protest over the government’s handling of the armed threat.
  • From 2015, the north of the country, capital Ouagadougou and the east began to suffer regular kidnappings and attacks by armed groups affiliated with al-Qaeda or ISIL (ISIS).
  • In November 2017, the French-backed G5 force started joint cross-border operations in Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger.

G5 Sahel Joint Force and the Sahel Alliance

  • G5 Sahel countries – Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania and Niger – face a number of challenges, including the growing threat of terrorism and organized crime, climate change and demographic growth.
  • To coordinate their actions, the Heads of State of the region created the G5 Sahel in 2014, an intergovernmental cooperation framework, in order to put forward a regional response to the various challenges.
  • One of the structures launched by the G5 in the field of security is the G5 Sahel Joint Force, created in 2017 by the 5 States of the region.
  • The Sahel Alliance, launched in 2017 by France, Germany and the European Union, was created to improve the effectiveness of development assistance in the area and be a point of contact for the G5 on development issues.
  • France is one of the countries that support both of these exemplary initiatives.


D) Polity, Bills, Acts and Judgments

  1. 11th National Voters’ Day (NVD) (PIB)
  • Context:Election Commission of India celebrated 12th National Voters Day on 25th January 2022.


  • The Theme for National voter’s day 2022 is Electoral Literacy for Stronger Democracy.
  • The National Voters’ Day has been celebrated on January 25 every year since 2011, all across the country to mark the foundation day of Election Commission of India, i.e., 25th January 1950.
  • The main purpose of the NVD celebration is to encourage, facilitate and maximize enrolment, especially for the new voters.
  • New voters are felicitated and handed over their Elector Photo Identity Card (EPIC) in the NVD functions.
  • During the event, the Honourable President of India confers the National Awards for the Best Electoral Practices on State and District level officers for their outstanding performance in the conduct of elections in different spheres.
  • National Awards are also given to important stakeholders like national icons, CSOs and media groups for their valuable contribution towards voters’ awareness.
  • Chalo Karen Matdaan: It is a comic book which aims at voter education in a fun and thought-provoking way. Targeting young, new and future voters, this comic contains interesting and relatable characters to educate voters at large on electoral processes.








E) Indices, Reports, Surveys, Committees and Organisations

  1. Competition Commission of India (CCI) (TH, pg 12)
  • Context:The Competition Commission has imposed fines totalling more than ₹63 crore on three maritime transport companies — Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha Ltd (K-Line), Mitsui O.S.K. Lines Ltd (MOL) and Nissan Motor Car Carrier Company (NMCC) — and individuals concerned for indulging in cartelisation.


Competition Commission of India

  • The Competition Act, 2002, as amended by the Competition (Amendment) Act, 2007:
  • prohibits anti-competitive agreements;
  • abuse of dominant position by enterprises and;
  • regulates combinations (acquisition, acquiring of control and M&A),
  • which causes or likely to cause an appreciable adverse effect on competition within India.
  • The objectives of the Act are sought to be achieved through the Competition Commission of India (CCI), a quasi-judicial body.
  • CCI consists of a Chairperson and 6 Members appointed by the Central Government.

Objective of Competition Commission of India (CCI)

  • Remove negative competitive practices
  • Promote sustainable market competition
  • Protect the rights of the consumer
  • Protect the freedom of trade in Indian markets
  • Protect the rights of small traders from the large traders to ensure their survival
  • Advice and give suggestions to Competition Appellate Tribunal
  • Run informative campaigns and create public awareness about fair competitive practices.
  • The Commission is also required to give opinion on competition issues on a reference received from a statutory authority established under any law.
  • It also undertakes competition advocacy, create public awareness and impart training on competition issues.
  • Right to appeal under the Competition Act has been restricted to only certain orders of the Commission.
  • In 2017, the Competition Appellate Tribunal (COMPAT) was replaced by the National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT) which will now function as the appellate body under the Competition Act, 2002 (Competition Act).
  • In addition, like its predecessor, the NCLAT would also be relevant authority to seek a compensation under the Competition Act.
  • The COMPAT was quick to understand and apply the nuances of competition law.
  • On the contrary, the NCLAT, responsible for adjudicating matters under the Indian Companies Act, 2013 and the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 will now have appeals under the Competition Act to deal with.

Who can approach CCI?

  • Recently the National Company Law Appellate Tribunal, in the appeal case Samir Agarwal v. Competition Commission, ruled that, a ‘person’ must necessarily be one “who has suffered an invasion of their legal rights as a consumer or as a beneficiary of healthy competitive practices”.
  • Locus Standi can be simplified as the capacity to take action by himself or appear in court, only by an individual to seek justice for violation of his own rights.

Recent spree of mergers and acquisitions in India

  • The Mergers, amalgamations and acquisitions in India are also regulated by the Competition Commission of India (CCI).
  • CCI is the statutory authority responsible for reviewing combinations and assessing whether or not they cause or are likely to cause an appreciable adverse effect on competition within the relevant market(s) in India.
  • CCI is watchdog of market competition. Certain Checks are undertaken before any acquisition is approved by it.
  • 1. if it limits the number of suppliers available to customer in this market in India;
  • 2. if it reduces the intensity of innovation in the technology;
  • 3. If the substantial market position of the Parties in the market will reduce or eliminate the competitive pressure that would prevail in the absence of Proposed Combination;
  • 4. If it reduces the bargaining power that the customers enjoyed on account of fair competition in market.
  • 5. if it increases the cost of the entrants and rivals to compete.

Green Channel of CCI

  • In a bid to facilitate mergers and acquisitions (Combination) in the country, the Competition Commission of India (CCI) has taken inspiration from the Customs Department and established a ‘green channel’.
  • The CCI characterizes the ‘green channel’ as an automatic system of approval for Combinations wherein the Combination is deemed to be approved upon filing the notice in the format prescribed.
  • The criteria for ‘eligibility’ for such combinations is that “…the parties to the combination, their respective group entities and/or any entity in which they, directly or indirectly, hold shares and/or control:
  • do not produce/provide similar or identical or substitutable product(s) or service(s);
  • are not engaged in any activity relating to production, supply, distribution, storage, sale and service or trade in product(s) or provision of service(s):
  • which are at different stage or level of production chain; and
  • which are complementary to each other.”
  • In a boost to the green channel route, the CCI in October 2019 approved its first Combination under the green channel to acquisition by Sachin Bansal owned BAC Acquisitions Private Limited (BACQ) of Essel Mutual Fund.

Herfindahl– Hirschman Index (HHI)

  • It can be used for measuring the level of competition or market concentration in a relevant market.

Toothless regulator

  • The Competition Commission of India (CCI) is the statutory body mandated to regulate anti-competitive activity in the country based on the Competition Act 2002.
  • The CCI started full-fledged operations in 2010, following the repealing of the Monopoly and Restrictive Trade Practices Act, which was in force from 1969 to 2009.
  • Over the past 10 years, the CCI has imposed penalties amounting to ₹13,381 crore, but less than 1% of that amount (about ₹127 crore) has been actually realized (See chart 2).
  • Most of the orders of the CCI are under appeal before the National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT) or under challenge in the high courts or the Supreme Court.

The many loopholes

  • The inability of CCI to consistently adjudicate and enforce punitive measures points to certain lacunae in the provisions of the Competition Act, 2002 from which the CCI derives its authority.
  • Even though the 2002 Act represents an improvement from its extremely restrictive predecessor —the MRTP ACT—it remains riddled with loopholes and ambiguities.
  • For instance, the law allows the CCI to leave some leeway for “relative advantage, by way of contribution to the economic development.” This may allow large firms to justify their anti-competitive practices in the name of development.
  • The most significant challenges that the CCI will encounter in the future, however, are in new emerging spheres such as telecom, internet and big-technology.
  • In these spheres, the CCI’s functions also overlap with those of regulatory bodies such as the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI).
  • To assess and ensure competition in these spheres, CCI will require staff with specialized knowledge in technology as well as an understanding of modern industrial economics.

Concentration risksin India’s internet economy

  • Concentration risks (consolidation of market power in these dominant firms) abound India’s newly emerging internet economy too.
  • And these risks are a lot harder to quantify since many of the firms are either unlisted private entities or listed in stock markets outside the country.
  • The distinguishing feature of internet and telecom markets is the accruing of ‘network effects’, a phenomenon whereby a product or service gains additional value as more people use it.
  • There can be situations where large internet firms and technology companies can pose anti-competitive challenges due to their dominance arising from network effects.

F) Art, Culture and History

  1. Subhas Chandra Bose’s relationship with Nehru, Gandhi and the Congress (IE)
  • Context: An article in the Indian Express Explained.


  • On July 16, 1921, Bose had returned to Bombay from London where he had gone on his father’s insistence to prepare for the Indian Civil Services examination. Despite qualifying for the services he had refused to take up the opportunity.
  • On Gandhi’s advice Bose moved to Calcutta, where he worked closely with the lawyer and Congress leader C R Das.
  • In February 1922, Gandhi had unilaterally called off the non-cooperation movement on account of the outbreak of violence at Chauri Chaura.
  • Both Bose and Nehru had been in prison at that time and both expressed disappointment and anger in knowing that the movement they had worked so hard for it.
  • The political rivalry between Bose and Nehru developed only from the later 1930s, and were a product of their differing attitudes towards Gandhi and the nationalist movement as well as their opposing views towards Fascism and the Second World War.
  • In February 1938 Bose had taken over as president of the Congress. At the Haripura session of the Congress, Bose made it clear that he stood for unqualified Swaraj.
  • As president of the Congress, his first disagreement with Gandhi happened in December 1938 when Bose was eager to form a coalition government in Bengal along with the KrishakPraja Party.
  • Bose was hopeful for re-election as Congress president. A second term was very rare and Gandhi was pretty much against the idea of re-electing Bose. The latter found support from the younger and left leaning members of the Congress and also from the literary giant Rabindranath Tagore. Tagore had personally written to Gandhi requesting a second term for Bose.
  • In his exasperation, Bose was seeking an alternative leadership to that of the Congress. In March 1940 he organised the All India Anti Compromise Conference in Ramgarh. He urged his audience to act while before it was too late.
  • “He presented the examples of Lenin and Mussolini as leaders who seized the moment in history and provided decisive leadership to their countries. He ended the speech with ‘Inquilab zindabad’, a sign off that would soon become his trademark,
  • When Bose took over the Indian National Army (INA), he constituted four regiments, three of which were named after Gandhi, Nehru and Maulana Azad.





G) Science and Technology, Defence, Space

  1. Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) (TH, pg 15)
  • Context: GRAM report has found that as many as 4.95 million deaths may be associated with bacterial AMR in 2019.
  • Estimates included in the paper show that AMR is a leading cause of death globally, higher than HIV/AIDS or malaria.


  • Common infections such as lower respiratory tract infections, bloodstream infections, and intra-abdominal infections are now killing hundreds of thousands of people every year because bacteria have become resistant to treatment.
  • The six leading pathogens for deaths associated with resistance were Escherichia coli, followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

What are antimicrobials?

  • Antimicrobials – including antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals and antiparasitics – are medicines used to prevent and treat infections in humans, animals and plants.

What is antimicrobial resistance?

  • Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) occurs when bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites change over time and no longer respond to medicines making infections harder to treat and increasing the risk of disease spread, severe illness and death.

Why is antimicrobial resistance a global concern?

  • The emergence and spread of drug-resistant pathogens that have acquired new resistance mechanisms, is leading to antimicrobial resistance.
  • It threatens the ability of healthcare systems to treat common infections.
  • Rapid global spread of multi- and pan-resistant bacteria (also known as “superbugs”) that cause infections that are not treatable with existing antimicrobial medicines such as antibiotics.
  • Antibiotics are becoming increasingly ineffective as drug-resistance spreads globally leading to more difficult to treat infections and death.
  • WHO has declared that AMR is one of the top 10 global public health threats facing humanity.

Immediate Causes of AMR

  • Misuse and overuse of antimicrobials are the main drivers in the development of drug-resistant pathogens.
  • Lack of clean water and sanitation and hygiene (WASH) for both humans and animals.
  • Poor infection and disease prevention and control in health-care facilities and farms.
  • Poor access to quality, affordable medicines, vaccines and diagnostics.
  • lack of awareness and knowledge
  • lack of enforcement of legislation.

What accelerates the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance?

  • AMR occurs naturally over time, usually through genetic changes.
  • Antimicrobial resistant organisms are found in people, animals, food, plants and the environment (in water, soil and air).
  • They can spread from person to person or between people and animals, including from food of animal origin.
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae are common intestinal bacteria that can cause life-threatening infections.
  • pneumoniae is a major cause of hospital-acquired infections such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and infections in newborns and intensive-care unit patients.
  • Drug-resistant Candida auris, one of the most common invasive fungal infections.

Global Antimicrobial Resistance and Use Surveillance System (GLASS)

  • WHO launched the Global Antimicrobial Resistance and Use Surveillance System (GLASS) in 2015 to continue filling knowledge gaps and to inform strategies at all levels.
  • Some of the major factors which are contributing to the increasing incidences of anti-microbial resistance in India are:
  • Mass bathing during cultural events;
  • Excessive use of antibiotics in the livestock industry;
  • Insufficient hospital hygiene;
  • Misuse of antibiotics in humans and agriculture;
  • Irresponsible manufacturing of antibiotics including uncontrolled discharge of effluents by the pharmaceutical industry.

Red Line Campaign

  • India’s Red Line campaigninvolves marking prescription-only antibiotics with a red line to curb their irrational use and create awareness on the dangers of taking antibiotics without being prescribed.

Chennai Declaration

  • Over the last 10 years, antibiotic stewardship efforts by various medical societies in our country and other stakeholders including the Chennai Declaration have significantly raised awareness of the super bug problem among the medical community.
  • The Chennai Declaration is a document, prepared by representatives of various stakeholders and eminent experts in India, to tackle the challenge of anti-microbial resistance from an Indian perspective.
  • Lack of infrastructure and inadequate diagnostic facilities in our health-care sector is one of the major triggers of the irrational antibiotic use by doctors and the public.

India’s first National Antimicrobial Resistance Hub in Kolkata

  • The ICMR inaugurated India’s first National Antimicrobial Resistance Hub in Kolkata. It would be the hub for research on antibiotic resistance not only for the country but for the entire South Asia.

Do you know?

Toothpastes contribute to antibiotic resistance

  • Why? Because of the presence oftriclosan, a compound used in more than 2,000 personal care products.
  • How? When different strains of bacteria are exposed to an antimicrobial, those that have resistance genes survive while the others are killed. Over time, this can lead to the selective survival of resistant strains, and to an increase of resistance.


  1. Ct Value in a Covid-19 Test (IE)
  • Context:Maharashtra government has sent a request to the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) to seek clarity whether it was advisable to treat a person as Covid-negative if the Ct value is more than 24 and the person is asymptomatic.


Why is CT value important?

  • According to the ICMR, a patient is considered Covid-positive if the Ct value is below 35. In other words, if the virus is detectable after 35 cycles or earlier, then the patient is considered positive.

What is Ct value?

  • Short for cycle threshold, Ct is a value that emerges during RT-PCR tests for detection of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus.
  • CT value in a Covid-19 test (RAT, Antigen, RT-PCR) refers to the number of cycles after which the virus can be detected. In an RT PCR test the number shows is a patient is Covid 19 positive or not
  • In an RT-PCR test, RNA is extracted from the swab collected from the patient.
  • It is then converted into DNA, which is then amplified.
  • Amplification refers to the process of creating multiple copies of the genetic material in this case, DNA.
  • This improves the ability of the test to detect the presence of virus.
  • Amplification takes place through a series of cycles — one copy becomes two, two becomes four, and so on — and it is after multiple cycles that a detectable amount of virus is produced.
  • Ct value refers to the number of cycles after which the virus can be detected.
  • The lower the Ct value, the higher the viral load — because the virus has been spotted after fewer cycles.
  • One can think of Ct value as a measure of transmission potential-So if there is more virus in my throat and nose, I will transmit it better and lower is the Ct value.

What is the significance of the ICMR threshold of 35?

  • Globally, the accepted cut-off for Ct value for Covid-19 ranges between 35 and 40, depending on instructions from the respective manufacturers of testing equipment.
  • The ICMR has arrived at the Ct value of 35 based on laboratory experiences and inputs taken from several virology labs.

Is there any correlation between a Ct value and severity of disease?

  • Although Ct value is inversely correlated with viral load, it does not have any bearing on the severity of the disease, experts have said.
  • A patient can have a low Ct value, which means her viral load is high enough to be detected rapidly, but she may still be asymptomatic.
  • The Ct value tells us about the viral load in the throat and not in the lungs.
  • The Ct value does not correlate with severity – only with infectivity.

Does a high Ct value always mean a low viral load?

  • While that may be the obvious inference, some experts stress that some patients can have a high Ct value and yet have a very significant level of Covid-19 infection, and vice versa.
  • Many factors are important in interpreting an RT-PCR test, and the results may also depend on the method of specimen collection and time from infection to collection and to analysis.
  • Again, Ct values may differ between nasal and oropharyngeal specimens collected from the same individual.
  • The temperature of transportation, as well as the time taken from collection to receipt in the lab, can also adversely impact Ct values.


H) Miscellaneous

  1. Person in News: Justice Ayesha Malik (TH, pg 11)
  • Justice Ayesha Malik took oath as the first woman judge of Pakistan Supreme Court, a landmark occasion in a nation where activists say the law is often wielded against women.


  1. National Girl Child Day (PIB)
  • India is celebrating National Girl Child Day on January 24. It is an initiative undertaken by the Ministry of Women and Child Development with an objective to provide support and opportunities to the girls of India.

Objectives of National Girl Child Day

  • According to the Ministry of Women and Child Development, National Girl Child Day is meant to create awareness about the rights a girl owns and to give them opportunities like everyone else, and to support the girl child of the nation and remove gender-based biases.
  • It also calls for promoting awareness about the inequalities that a girl child faces and educate people about girl’s education.
  • The main focus is on changing society’s attitude towards girls, decrease female feticide and create awareness about the decreasing sex ratio, the ministry further said.

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