Daily Current Affairs 22

18th January,2021 ; Daily Current Affairs

Daily Current Affairs   Date : 18th January,2021

 (30+ Questions hit in Prelims 2021 from this series)

Covers 4 Most relevant Sources

  • The Hindu
  • Indian Express
  • PIB
  • Mint

Index

  • A) Science and Technology, Defence, Space
  • Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation System (PIB)
  • Livestock Health and Disease Control (LH&DC) Programme (TH, pg 6)
  • B) Schemes, Policies, Initiatives, Awards and Social Issues
  • Sahodaya School Complexes(PIB)
  • National Technical Textiles Mission (NTTM) (PIB)
  • PM Gati Shakti (TH, pg 3)
  • KAPILACampaign (PIB)
  • C) Art, Culture and History
  • Kathak and its Lucknow Gharana (IE)
  • D) Indices, Reports, Surveys, Committees and Organisations
  • National Investigation Agency (NIA) (TH, pg 8)
  • World Economic Forum (TH, pg 1)
  • E) International Relations
  • Yemen Crisis and the Houthi Movement(TH, pg 1)
  • F) Miscellaneous
  • Who are the Ravidassias? (IE)
  • Inequality Kills (IE)

 

A) Science and Technology, Defence, Space

  1. Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation System (PIB)
  • Context:After the successful trials of UV-C Disinfection Technology in Railways, Parliament House and AC Buses, it is now open for general roll-out for use by common masses.
  • UV-C technology developed by the Ministry of Science & Technology through CSIR-CSIO (Central Scientific Instruments Organisation) is totally effective for mitigation of airborne transmission of SARS-COV-2 and will also remain relevant in post-COVID era.

Analysis

  • Irradiation is the process by which an object is exposed to radiation.
  • Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) is a disinfection method that uses short-wavelength ultraviolet (ultraviolet C or UV-C) light to kill or inactivate microorganisms by destroying nucleic acids and disrupting their DNA, leaving them unable to perform vital cellular functions.
  • UVGI is used in a variety of applications, such as food, air, and water purification.

What is UV Radiation?

  • All radiation is a form of energy, most of which is invisible to the human eye.
  • UV radiation is only one form of radiation and it is measured on a scientific scale called the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum.
  • UV radiation is the portion of the EM spectrum between X-rays and visible light.

How is radiation classified on the electromagnetic spectrum?

  • Electromagnetic radiation is all around us, though we can only see some of it.
  • All EM radiation (also called EM energy) is made up of minute packets of energy or ‘particles,’ called photons, which travel in a wave-like pattern and move at the speed of light.
  • At the bottom of the spectrum radio waves have photons with low energies, so their wavelengths are long with peaks that are far apart.
  • The photons of microwaves have higher energies, followed by infrared waves, UV rays, and X-rays.
  • At the top of the spectrum, gamma rays have photons with very high energies and short wavelengths with peaks that are close together.

What are the different types of UV radiation?

  • The most common form of UV radiation is sunlight, which produces three main types of UV rays:
  • UVA
  • UVB
  • UVC
  • UVA rays have the longest wavelengths, followed by UVB, and UVC rays which have the shortest wavelengths.
  • While UVA and UVB rays are transmitted through the atmosphere, all UVC and some UVB rays are absorbed by the Earth’s ozone layer.
  • So, most of the UV rays you come in contact with are UVA with a small amount of UVB.
  • UVB rays have a short wavelength that reaches the outer layer of your skin (the epidermis)
  • UVA rays have a longer wavelength that can penetrate the middle layer of your skin (the dermis)
  • Out of three types of UV radiations named UVA, UVB and UVC, short wavelength UVC damages and alters DNA of all potentially harmful microbes, including viruses, making them incapable of replication.

What effect does UV radiation have on my body?

  • Both UVA and UVB rays can cause damage to your skin.
  • Sunburn is a sign of short-term overexposure, while premature aging and skin cancer are side effects of prolonged UV exposure.
  • Sunlight is not the only source of UV radiation you may encounter. Other sources include:
  • Tanning booths
  • Mercury vapor lighting (often found in stadiums and school gyms)
  • Some halogen, fluorescent, and incandescent lights
  • Some types of lasers

Are there health benefits of exposure to UV radiation?

  • Exposure to UVB radiation helps the skin produce a type of vitamin D, (vitamin D3), which plays an important role – along with calcium – in bone and muscle health.
  • The sun’s ultraviolet B (UVB) rays hit cholesterol in the skin cells, providing the energy for vitamin D synthesis to occur.
  • However, the amount of UVB exposure needed to obtain a benefit depends on several factors.

Many factors determine how much UV you are exposed to, including:

Geography

  • UV rays are strongest in areas close to the equator.
  • Because the sun is directly over the equator, UV rays only travel a short distance through the atmosphere to reach these areas.
  • UV radiation is also the strongest near the equator because ozone in these areas is naturally thinner, so there is less to absorb the UV radiation.

Altitude

  • Higher altitudes have greater UV exposure because there is less atmosphere to absorb UV rays.

Time of Year

  • During the summer months the sun is in a more direct angle, resulting in a greater amount of UV radiation.

Time of Day

  • UV is most intense at noon when the sun is at its highest point in the sky, and UV rays have the least distance to travel through the atmosphere.

Weather Conditions

  • Many people believe that you cannot get sunburned on a cloudy day; this is simply not the case.
  • Even under cloud cover it is possible to damage your skin and eyes, and cause long-term damage.
  • It is important that you protect yourself with sunscreen, even in cloudy weather.

Reflection

  • UV exposure is also greater in areas of snow, sand, pavement, grass, and water due to the reflective properties of these surfaces.

Disinfection by Ultraviolet Light

  • For the past 100 years science has recognized the bactericide effects of the ultraviolet area of the electromagnetic spectrum.
  • The specific wavelengths responsible for this reaction are situated between 240 – 280 nanometers (referred to as nm) with a peak wavelength at 265 nm. They are known as UV-C.
  • When a micro-organism’s (most viruses, bacteria, spores, cysts etc.)genetic material (DNA and RNA) is exposed to UV-C, the nuclei of the cells are modified, due to photolytic processes. In result, cell division and, by extension, reproduction is prevented.
  • It can be used to disinfect liquids, surfaces and even gases/air.
  • UV disinfection is a physical process rather than a chemical disinfectant.
  • UV disinfection has a shorter contact time when compared with other disinfectants.
  • However, there is at least one disadvantage. Organisms can sometimes repair and reverse destructive effects of UV through a “repair mechanism,” known as photoreactivation, or in the absence of light known as “dark repair.”

Can UVC help prevent COVID-19 transmission by reducing contamination?

  • Based on existing evidence, we believe so. Here’s why:
  • All bacteria and viruses tested to date (many hundreds over the years, including other coronaviruses) respond to UV disinfection.
  • Some organisms are more susceptible to UV-C disinfection than others, but all tested so far do respond at the appropriate doses.
  • UVC disinfection is often used with other technologies in a multibarrier approach to ensure that whatever pathogen is not “killed” by one method (say filtering or cleaning) is inactivated by another (UV-C).

 

  1. Livestock Health and Disease Control (LH&DC) Programme (TH, pg 6)
  • Context: Livestock farmers are often compelled to travel far from their villages whenever their animals need treatment — a scenario that adversely impacts the longevity and the productivity of their livestock.
  • To mitigate this problem, the Government has identified a slew of measures within the revised provisions of the Livestock Health and Disease Control (LH&DC) programme; here, a major focus has been on the ‘Establishment and Strengthening of Veterinary Services – Mobile Veterinary Units (MVUs)’.

Analysis

  • For promotion of health of livestock and animals, the Department of Animal Husbandry & Dairying implements a Centrally Sponsored Scheme “Livestock Health & Disease Control” (LH&DC).
  • It envisages control & containment of economically important animal diseases by providing central financial assistance to the States.
  • Under this scheme, vaccination is carried out for control of diseases like Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR), Brucellosis, Anthrax, Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS), Black Quarter (BQ), Classical Swine Fever, Ranikhet disease, etc.
  • It also envisages establishment and strengthening of existing Veterinary Hospitals and Dispensaries (ESVHD)-Mobile Veterinary Units.

Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD)

  • Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious virus disease of livestock animals.
  • It affects cloven-hoofed animals (those with divided hoofs), including cattle, buffalo, camels, sheep, goats, deer and pigs.

Brucellosis

  • Brucellosis is a disease caused by a group of bacteria from the genus
  • These bacteria can infect both humans and animals, however, Brucellosis is primarily a disease of animals.
  • Brucellosis is often spread when people eat contaminated food, which can include raw meat and unpasteurized milk.
  • The bacteria can also be spread through the air or contact with an open wound.

Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR)

  • Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR), also known as sheep and goat plague, is a highly contagious animal disease affecting small ruminants.
  • Once introduced, the virus can infect up to 90 percent of an animal heard, and the disease kills anywhere from 30 to 70 percent of infected animals.
  • The PPR virus does not infect humans.
  • PPR was first described in 1942 in Côte d’Ivoire.

Haemorrhagic Septicaemia

  • Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute, fatal, septicaemic disease of cattle and water buffaloescaused by a gram negative bacterium Pasteurella multocida.
  • The disease has been reported in swine, fallow deer and sporadically in horses, donkeys, elephant and yak.

Black Quarter (BQ)

  • BQ is an infectious disease caused by soil-borne bacteria.

Classic Swine Fever (CSF)

  • Classic Swine Fever (CSF), also known as Hog Cholera, is a viral disease confined to domestic and wild swine, which is highly contagious and causes high morbidity and mortality.

Ranikhet Disease

  • Ranikhet disease, also known as New Castle disease, dates back to 1938 when the strain of avian paramyxovirus was first reported in Newcastle followed by Ranikhet, a picturesque hill station in Uttarakhand.
  • The disease is fatal for birds, chicken and other fowls.
  • It is characterised by respiratory problems, twitching of neck, and paralysis of legs and wings.

 

B) Schemes, Policies, Initiatives, Awards and Social Issues

  1. Sahodaya School Complexes(PIB)
  • Context:The 27th National Annual Conference of Sahodaya School Complexes organised by CBSE.

Analysis

  • Sahodaya School Complex is a group of neighborhood schools voluntarily coming to share their innovative practices in all aspects of school education including curriculum design, evaluation, and pedagogy and also providing support services for teachers and students.
  • Sahodaya concept is developed by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) in 1986, the largest governing body of academics with nearly 16047 schools affiliated to it within the country as well as abroad (250 Schools) functioning under the aegis of Ministry of Education, Govt. of India.
  • It is a unique platform for all CBSE affiliated Schools to share their experience and to work jointly for scholastic as well as co-scholastic excellence.

 

  1. National Technical Textiles Mission (NTTM) (PIB)
  • Context: Ministry of Textiles clears 20 Strategic Projects in the areas of Specialty Fibres and Geotextiles under the Flagship Programme National Technical Textiles Mission (NTTM).

Analysis

  • NTTM aims to position the country as a global leader in technical textiles and increase the use of technical textiles in the domestic market.
  • The Mission will be implemented for four years from 2020-2021to 2023-24and will have four components.
  • The first component(Research, Innovation and Development)will focus on research, and innovation including the development of bio-degradable technical textiles.
  • The second component(Promotion and Market Development)will be for promotion and development of market for technical textiles.
  • The penetration level of technical textiles is low in India varying between 5-10% against the level of 30-70% in developed countries.
  • The Mission will aim at average growth rate of 15-20% per annum taking the level of domestic market size to 40-50 Billion USD by the year 2024.
  • The third component(Export Promotion) will focus on export promotion so that technical textile exports from the country reach from the ₹14,000 crore now to ₹20,000 crore by 2021-2022 and ensure 10% average growth every year till the Mission ends.
  • The last component(Education, Training, Skill Development)will be on education, training and skill development.

Technical Textiles

  • Technical textiles are engineered products with a definite functionality.
  • They are manufactured using natural as well as man-made fibres such as Nomex, Kevlar, Spandex, Twaron that exhibit enhanced functional properties such as higher tenacity, excellent insulation, improved thermal resistance etc.
  • These products find end-use application across multiple non-conventional textile industries such as healthcare, civil engineering and construction, automobile, aerospace, sports, defence, agriculture,industrial safety, personal protection etc.
  • Based on usage, there are 12 technical textile segments; Agrotech, Meditech, Buildtech, Mobiltech, Clothtech, Oekotech, Geotech, Packtech, Hometech, Protech, Indutech and Sportech.

Do you know?

  • The world market for technical textiles is $250 billion and India’s share is $19 billion.
  • The biggest players are the U.S., West European countries, China and Japan.
  • In less than two years, India had become a net exporter of technical textiles.
  • In FY21, India’s major share of technical textile exports was in PPEs, N-95 and surgical masks, and fabric for PPEs and masks.
  • Technical textile accounts for approximately 13% of India’s total textile and apparel market and contributes to India’s GDP at 0.7%.
  • As many as 92 technical textile items have been made mandatory for use by government organisations covering agriculture, horticulture, highways, railways, water resources, and medical applications.

Geotechnical Textiles

  • Geotechnical Textiles are technical textile products manufactured from natural and man-made fibres.
  • These materials carry a huge potential for use in projects relating to road construction, hill slope protection and erosion control, river bank protection, reservoir lining for water retention etc.
  • The transportation sector will be a key beneficiary of geo-synthetic products and their abilities in enhancing durability of roads, improving drainage facilities, and facilitating construction of erosion-preventing structures.

 

  1. PM Gati Shakti (TH, pg 3)
  • Context: Union Minister for Road Transport & Highways chaired the inaugural session of a conference on PM Gati Shakti — a digital platform for integrated planning and implementation of infrastructure connectivity projects across the country.

Analysis

  • PM GatiShakti is essentially a digital platform that brings together 16 ministries and institutionalises holistic planning and coordinated implementation of infrastructure connectivity projects.
  • PM GatiShakti – is basically aNational Master Plan on Multi-Modal Connectivity was launched by Government of India in 2021.
  • It will incorporate infrastructure schemes like Bharatmala, Sagarmala and inland waterways, dry/land ports, UDAN, among others.
  • Textile clusters, pharma clusters, defence corridors, electronic parks, industrial corridors, fishing clusters, agri zones and other economic hubs will be covered under PM GatiShakti to improve connectivity and make Indian businesses more competitive.
  • Itwill provide the entire data at one place with GIS based spatial planning and analytical tools having 200+ layers, enabling better visibility to the executing agency.
  • The multi-modal connectivity will provide integrated and seamless connectivity for movement of people, goods and services from one mode of transport to another.
  • It will facilitate last-mile connectivity of infrastructure, reduce travel time for people, cut down logistics costs, improve supply chains, and make local goods globally competitive.
  • It will also leverage technology extensively including spatial planning tools with ISRO imagery developed by BiSAG-N (Bhaskaracharya National Institute for Space Applications and Geoinformatics).

 

  1. KAPILACampaign (PIB)
  • The government has launched a campaign namely Kalam Program for Intellectual Property Literacy and Awareness Campaign (KAPILA) on 15thOctober, 2020 to increase awareness regarding protection and exploitation of Intellectual Property (IP) and also to provide funding support in order to promote filing of the Intellectual Property (IP)in Higher Education Institutions.
  • It has also been decided to celebrate the week of October 15th to 23rd as ‘Intellectual Property Literacy Week’.

 

C) Art, Culture and History

  1. Kathak and its Lucknow Gharana (IE)
  • Context:Pandit Birju Maharaj a renowned Kathak dancer of Lucknow Gharana dies at the age of 83.

Analysis

  • Native to North India, Kathak is one of the Indian classical dance forms.
  • Kathak originated within Hindu temples as a storytelling device for portraying the epic tales from Hindu scriptures.
  • This performing art also incorporates legends from ancient mythology and tales from Mahabharata and Ramayana, other scriptures especially from the life of Lord Krishna.
  • Poetry was combined with rhythmic movement to aid in the worshipful storytelling.
  • The origin of Kathak is traditionally attributed to the traveling bards in the of ancient northern India known as Kathakars or storytellers
  • During the medieval period, Kathak became an established part of court culture, performed under the patronage of India’s Persian kings and Mughal Emperors.
  • One medieval ruler Wajid Ali Shah nawab of Awadh (Lucknow)– a poet and dancer himself, Shah paid special attention to the emotional expressiveness of the dance. Out of his court came a stylization of Kathak that is today known as the Lucknow gharana, or school.
  • Kathak is the only form of classical dance wedded to Hindustani or the North Indian music.
  • It is usually performed solo by both male and female dancers.
  • The focus is more on footwork; the movements are skillfully controlled and performed straight legged by dancers wearing ankle-bells.
  • The Vaishnavite cult which swept North India in the 15th century and the resultant bhakti movement contributed to a whole new range of lyrics and musical forms.
  • The Radha-Krishna theme proved immensely popular alongwith the works of Mirabai, Surdas, Nandadas and Krishnadas.

Kathak developed during the Bhakti movement.

  • The Kathakars communicate stories through rhythmic foot movements, hand gestures, facial expressions and eye work.
  • Three specific forms of this genre that is three gharanas (schools), which mostly differ in emphasis given to footwork versus acting, are more famous namely, the Jaipur gharana, the Benaras gharana and the Lucknow gharana.
  • Imminent personalities associated with Kathak include among others the founders of the different gharanas namely Bhanuji of the Jaipur Gharana; Janaki Prasad of the Benaras Gharana and Raja Chakradhar Singh of the Raigarh Gharana.

Brief about Lucknow Gharana

  • The Lucknow Gharana of Kathak was founded by Ishwari Prasad, a devotee of the Bhakti movement.
  • It is well acknowledged as the Lucknow grarana of Kathak by Indian literature on music of both Hindus and Muslims.
  • Shambhu Maharaj was a renowned guru of the Lucknow Gharana.

Eight Forms of Famous Indian Classical Dance

  • Bharatanatyam – Tamil Nadu.
  • Kathak – Uttar Pradesh.
  • Kathakali – Kerala.
  • Kuchipudi – Andhra Pradesh.
  • Manipuri – Manipur.
  • Odissi – Orissa.
  • Sattriya – Assam.
  • Mohiniyattam – Kerala.

 

D) Indices, Reports, Surveys, Committees and Organisations

  1. National Investigation Agency (NIA) (TH, pg 8)
  • Context:The National Investigation Agency (NIA) is gathering details on the explosion involving three petroleum tankers in Abu Dhabi recently.
  • Through amendments in the National Investigation Agency Act in 2019, the agency has been empowered to investigate terror cases involving Indians and Indian interests abroad, apart from cases of cybercrime and human trafficking.
  • Note: You have already prepared this topic in detail from the1 Dec 2021 file.

 

  1. World Economic Forum (TH, pg 1)
  • Context:The Prime Minister of India delivered ‘State of the World’ special address at the World Economic Forum’s Davos Agenda via video conferencing.
  • The Davos Agenda aims to mobilize heads of state and government, business leaders, international organizations and civil society to share their outlook, insights and plans relating to the most urgent global issues.

Analysis

  • The World Economic Forum is the International Organization for Public-Private Cooperation.
  • It was established in 1971 as a not-for-profit foundation and is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • It is an international organization with no commercial interests.
  • The group assumed the name World Economic Forum (WEF) in 1987 to reflect the importance of global economic and political issues, including poverty, environmental problems, and international conflict, which it immediately began working to resolve.
  • The WEF also serves as a think tank, and in this capacity, it has launched a series of global economic enterprises, including the Global Health Initiative (2002).

The Forum holds four major annual meetings:

  • 1. The World Economic Forum Annual Meeting, held in Davos-Klosters, Switzerland, shapes global, regional and industry agendas at the beginning of the calendar year.
  • 2. The Annual Meeting of the New Champions, the Forum’s annual meeting on innovation, science and technology, is held in the People’s Republic of China.
  • 3. The Annual Meeting of the Global Future Councils, held in the United Arab Emirates, brings together the world’s leading knowledge community to share insights on the major challenges facing the world today.
  • 4. The Industry Strategy Meeting brings together Industry Strategy Officers to shape industry agendas and explore how industries can shift from managing change to pioneering change.
  • The Forum has built world-class research capabilities, producing cutting-edge data on some of the world’s most significant issues, including:
    – Competitiveness
    – Gender Parity
    – Global Information Technology
  • The WEF’s activities take place at the interaction of three focus areas:
  • Mastering the Fourth Industrial Revolution;
  • Solving the problems of the Global Commons; and
  • Addressing global security issues.

Major reports published by the WEF

  • Global Competitiveness Report,
  • Global Risks Report,
  • Global Gender Gap Report,
  • Global Social Mobility Report,
  • Regional Risks for Doing Business Report,
  • Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report,
  • Fostering Effective Energy Transition Report.

 

E) International Relations

  1. Yemen Crisis and the Houthi Movement (TH, pg 1)
  • Context:Two Indians and a Pakistani were killed in a massive explosion in three petroleum tankers in Abu Dhabi, in what is claimed as a “drone attack” by Yemen’s Houthi rebels.

Analysis

  • Yemen crisis: Who is fighting whom?
  • Yemen, one of the Arab world’s poorest countries, has been devastated by a civil war.
  • How did the war start?
  • Failed political transition following an Arab Spring uprising that forced its long-time authoritarian president, Ali Abdullah Saleh, to hand over power to his deputy Abdrabbuh Mansour Hadi, in 2011.
  • President Hadi struggled to deal with a variety of problems, including
  • attacks by al-Qaeda,
  • a separatist movement in the south,
  • the continuing loyalty of many military officers to Mr Saleh, as well as
  • corruption, unemployment and food insecurity.
  • The Houthi movement (by Yemen’s Zaidi Shia Muslim minority) took advantage of the new president’s weakness by taking control of their northern heartland of Saada province and neighbouring areas and later forcing Mr Hadi to flee to Riyadh where he currently heads an ‘internationally recognised’ but largely ineffective government of Yemen.
  • Yemen’s internationally-backed government of Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, the Saudi ally, is controlling the south, though Mr. Hadi is running the purported administration from Saudi Arabia.
  • Disillusioned with the transition, many ordinary Yemenis – including Sunnis – supported the Houthis.
  • Alarmed by the rise of Houthis – believed to be backed militarily by regional Shia power Iran, Saudi Arabia and other mostly Sunni Arab states (UAE, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Jordan, Sudan, Egypt-mostly Sunni powers) began an air campaign (“Operation Decisive Storm”)aimed at restoring Mr Hadi’s government.
  • The coalition received logistical and intelligence support from the US, UK and France.
  • Four years on, the civil war has ground to a stalemate, with the al-Houthis hunkering it out in the north.
  • The United Nations has described Yemen to be currently in the grip of the world’s worst humanitarian catastrophe, with over 11,000 deaths and 3 million internally displaced.

Yemen

  • Yemen borders both Saudi Arabia and Oman.
  • Yemen borders both Red Sea and Gulf of Aden.
  • While almost all Yemenis are Muslims, the population in the north is mostly Zaidi which is closer to the Shia sect followed in Iran.
  • The southerners are mostly Sunnis akin to a majority of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) citizens.
  • Bab al-Mandeb Straitis a geo-strategic choke point connecting the Arabian Sea with the Red Sea onwards to the Suez Canal.
  • Most of India’s west-bound sea trade passes through Bab al Mandeb.

 

F) Miscellaneous

  1. Who are the Ravidassias? (IE)
  • The Ravidassias are a Dalit community of whom the bulk — nearly 12 lakh — live in the Doaba region.
  • The Dera Sachkhand Ballan, their largest dera with 20 lakh followers worldwide, was founded in the early 20th century by Baba Sant Pipal Das.
  • Once closely connected with Sikhism, the dera severed these decades-old ties in 2010, and announced they would follow the Ravidassia religion.
  • Guru Ravidas was a mystic poet saint of the Bhakti Movement from the 15th and 16th centuries, and founded the Ravidassia religion.
  • From 2010, the Dera Sachkhand Ballan started replacing the Guru Granth Sahib with its own Granth, Amritbani, carrying 200 hymns of Guru Ravidas, in Ravidassia temples and gurdwaras.

 

  1. Inequality Kills (IE)
  • The unparalleled action needed to combat unprecedented inequality in the wake of COVID-19 is a report released in January 2022 by Oxfam, a U.K.-based consortium of 21 charitable organisations that have a global presence.
  • The central argument of the report is that inequality is a death sentence for people that are marginalised by social and economic structures and removed from political decision making.

The report points out a startling statistic: 160 million people were rendered poor during the pandemic, while the ten richest people doubled their fortunes since the start of the pandemic.