Daily Current Affairs 22

11th January 2021 : Daily Current Affairs

Daily Current Affairs   Date : 11th January,2021

(30+ Questions hit in Prelims 2021 from this series)

Covers 4 Most relevant Sources

  • The Hindu
  • Indian Express
  • PIB
  • Mint

Index

A) Indices, Reports, Surveys, Committees and Organisations

  • Labour Bureau Launches Five All-India Surveys (PIB)
  • B) Schemes, Policies, Initiatives, Awards and Social Issues
  • Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana 3.0 (PMKVY 3.0)and Other Schemes(PIB)
  • C) Polity, Bills, Acts and Judgments
  • Inter-State River Water Disputes (Amendment) Bill, 2019 (TH, pg 1)
  • Mediation Bill, 2021 (PIB)
  • D) Agriculture, Geography, Environment and Biodiversity
  • What is Gateway to Hell (IE)
  • E) International Relations
  • 70th anniversary of the Rubber-Rice Pact (TH, pg 11)

 

A) Indices, Reports, Surveys, Committees and Organisations

  1. Labour Bureau Launches Five All-India Surveys (PIB)
  • Context: The Union Minister for Labour & Employment released the report of second quarter of Quarterly Employment Survey (QES), a part of All-India Quarterly Establishment-based Employment Survey (AQEES).

Analysis

  • The Labour Bureau, a wing under the Labour Ministry, has recently been tasked with five major All India Surveys by the Government of India.
  • The five surveys are the:
  • All-India Survey of Migrant Workers,
  • All-India Survey on Domestic Workers,
  • All-India Survey on Employment generated in Transport Sector,
  • All-India Survey of Employment Generated by Professionals and
  • All-India Quarterly Establishment based Employment Survey (AQEES).

All-India Quarterly Establishment-based Employment Survey (AQEES)

  • AQEES seeks to provide frequent (quarterly) estimates of employment, vacancies, training and other related parameters in both organised and unorganised segments of nine major sectors of the economy which account for a great majority of the total employment in the non-farm establishments.
  • The nine selected sectors are Manufacturing, Construction, Trade, Transport, Education, Health, Accommodation & Restaurant, IT/BPO and Financial Services.
  • The Area Frame Establishment Survey (AFES) is one component of AQEES which assesses employment scenarios in the unorganised segment of nine selected non-farm sector establishments having less than 10 employees.
  • The other component of AQEES is Quarterly Employment Survey (QES) which assesses employment scenarios in nine organised non-farm sector establishments having 10 or more employees.

 

B) Schemes, Policies, Initiatives, Awards and Social Issues

  1. Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana 3.0 (PMKVY 3.0)and Other Schemes(PIB)
  • Context:Year End Review of Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship.

Analysis

  • The Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE) has launched the third phase of its flagship scheme—Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana 3.0 (PMKVY 3.0) in January 2021.
  • The Prime Objectives of PMKVY 3.0 are:
  • Create an ecosystem for the youth to make informed choices on the available skilling avenues.
  • Provide support to youth for skill training and certification.
  • Promote sustainable Skill Centres for greater participation of private sector.
  • Benefit 8 lakh youth across the country.

IndiaSkills

  • IndiaSkills, the country’s biggest skill competition,offers a platform to young people to showcase their talent at national and international levels.
  • IndiaSkills Competition is held every two years with the support of state governments and industry.
  • The national competition of IndiaSkills 2021, organised by the National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC), the nodal agency for skill and entrepreneurship development, working under the guidance of the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE), are being held in January 2022.

Skills Acquisition and Knowledge Awareness for Livelihood Promotion (SANKALP)

  • SANKALP is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme of MSDE, loan assisted by the World Bank.
  • The objectives of SANKALP are to strengthen the short-term skill ecosystem and to address key issues of skilling in the country.
  • These objectives are met through its three key result areas namely:
  • (i) Institutional Strengthening at National, State & District level;
  • (ii) Quality improvement of skill development programmes; and
  • (iii) Inclusion of marginalized population in skill development programmes.

Jan Shikshan Sansthan

  • Jan Shikshan Sansthan (formerly known as Shramik Vidyapeeth) provide vocational skills to non-literate, neo-literates as well as school drop-outs by identifying skills that have a market in the region of their establishment.
  • Neo-literate is an adult or an adolescent who did not or could not make use of the available educational opportunities on time, and who at a later stage acquired the skills of literacy through formal or non-formal approaches.
  • The Scheme is being implementing with public and private partnership since last five decades for the upliftment of women, SC, ST, OBC and Minority in rural and urban slums.
  • JSSs are providing vocational training at doorstep of the beneficiary in the unreached areas.
  • The Scheme of Jan Shikshan Sansthan has been transferred from Ministry of Human Resource Development to Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship in 2018.

Target Group

  • Socio-economically backward and educationally disadvantaged groups of rural/urban population.
  • Main target includes non-literate, neo-literates, person education upto 8th standard, school drop-outs, in the age group of 15-35 years.
  • Priority given to women, SC, ST, OBC and Minorities in rural areas and urban slums.

World Youth Skills Day

  • In December 2014, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution declaring 15th July as World Youth Skills Day.
  • The theme for 2020 World Youth Skills Day is “Skills for a Resilient Youth”.
  • The vision of the Incheon Declaration: Education 2030 is fully captured by Sustainable Development Goal 4 “Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all”.

 

C) Polity, Bills, Acts and Judgments

  1. Inter-State River Water Disputes (Amendment) Bill, 2019 (TH, pg 1)
  • Context:Justices D.Y. Chandrachud and A.S. Bopanna of the Supreme Court recused themselves from hearing a dispute among the States of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka on the allocation of the Krishna river water. Justice Chandrachud is from Maharashtra and Justice Bopanna hails from Karnataka.

Analysis

  • The Inter-State River Water Disputes (Amendment) Bill, 2019, introduced on the basis of Sarkaria Commission’s report, seeks to amend the Inter State River Water Disputes Act, 1956 to streamline the adjudication of inter-State river water disputes.
  • The Bill binds the Centre to set up Dispute Resolution Committee (DRC) to amicably resolve the issue related to inter-state river water disputes by negotiations in one year.
  • If the DRC cannot settle the dispute, the Centre must refer it to the interstate tribunal within three months.
  • A key feature of the Bill is the constitution of a single tribunal with different benches, and the setting of strict timelines for adjudication.
  • If enacted, it would make it mandatory for the Centre to constitute a tribunal on states’ request or suo motu.
  • As per the current provisions of the 1956 Act, a tribunal can be formed after a State government approaches the Union government with such a request and the Centre is convinced of the need to form the tribunal.
  • Benches will be set up under the single tribunal. A retired Supreme Court judge will head the tribunal.
  • There will be benches formed as and when required. The benches though will be wound up once a dispute is resolved.
  • The tribunal will be mandated to deliver final award in two years (which may be extended by another year) and it is proposed that whenever it gives order, the verdict gets notified automatically.
  • If the matter is again referred to the Tribunal by a state for further consideration, the Tribunal must submit its report to the central government within a period of six months.
  • The decision of the Bench of the Tribunal will be final and binding on the parties involved in the dispute.
  • So, the Bill prescribes timelines while a permanent tribunal with multiple benches is proposed be set up after dissolving all existing tribunals.
  • The tribunal would be appointed on the recommendation of a selection committee comprising the Prime Minister, Chief Justice of India and ministers from the Law and Justice, and Jal Shakti (water) ministries.
  • But even after a permanent tribunal is established, the states would not have the right to approach the DRC or the tribunal directly.
  • Since the selection committee would have the Prime Minister and two Union ministers, besides the Chief Justice of India, the role of the judiciary is substantially reduced.

Do you know?

  • Though the Constitution puts water as a subject under the State List, interstate rivers and river valleys fall under the Union List.
  • Parliament can make law, but with the objective to expedite dispute resolution.
  • Article 262 (1) bars the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court but matters are still being taken there on legal, jurisdictional, environmental and constitutional issues.

Major rivers water disputes and the states involved therein:

  • Krishna: Karnataka, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra
  • Mahanadi: Odisha and Chhattisgarh
  • Mahadayi/ Mandovi: Goa, Karnataka and Maharashtra
  • Ravi and Beas: Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan
  • Vansadhara: Andhra Pradesh &Odisha
  • Cauvery: Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala, and Puducherry
  • Tungabhadra: Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh
  • Godavari: Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, and Karnataka
  • Narmada: Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Rajasthan
  • Periyar: Kerala and Tamil Nadu

Krishna River

  • The Krishna is an east-flowing river, rises near the town of Mahabaleshwar, Maharashtra, in the Western Ghats, not far from the coast of the Arabian Sea, and passes through Karnataka, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh.
  • The Krishna river lies on the border of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana Krishna River is one of India’s longest rivers, it has a total course of about 800 miles (1,290 km).
  • The Krishna has a large and highly fertile delta continuous with that of the Godavari River to the northeast.
  • It is not navigable.
  • Because it is fed by seasonal monsoon rains, the river’s flow undergoes great fluctuation during the year, limiting its usefulness for irrigation.
  • The two largest tributaries are the Bhima (north) and the Tungabhadra (south).
  • Wai is the oldest city on the riverbanks of Krishna in the Satara District of Maharashtra.
  • The biggest city on the banks of the river in Maharashtra is Sangli and at the same time, the biggest city on the banks of the River in Andhra Pradesh is Vijayawada.
  • Srisailam (and Nagarjuna Sagar) are located on Krishna riverand the water is distributed between the two states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh via these hydro projects.
  • The Srisailam Dam is constructed across the Krishna River in Kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh and is the 2nd largest capacity working hydroelectric station in the country.
  • The dam was constructed in a deep gorge in the Nallamala Hills.
Length of some important Indian Rivers
Sl. No. River Length (km)
1. Indus 2,900
2. Brahmaputra 2,900
3. Ganga 2,510
4. Godavari 1,450
5. Narmada 1,290
6. Krishna 1,290
7. Mahanadi 890
8. Kaveri 760

 

  1. Mediation Bill, 2021 (PIB)
  • Context:The Mediation Bill, 2021 was introduced in Rajya Sabha recently.

Analysis

  • Mediation is a form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR), where parties attempt to settle their dispute (outside courts) with the assistance of an independent third person (mediator).  The Bill seeks to promote mediation (including online mediation).
  • In case of civil or commercial disputes, a person must try to settle the dispute by mediation before approaching any court or certain tribunals as notified.
  • Even if the parties fail to reach a settlement through pre-litigation mediation, the court or tribunal may at any stage of the proceedings refer the parties to mediation if they request for the same.
  • The Bill will not only apply to mediation proceedings conducted in India but also there is an international mediation (i.e., mediation related to a commercial dispute where at least one party is a foreign government, a foreign national/resident, or an entity with its place of business outside India).
  • If the central or state government is a party, the Bill will only apply to: (a) commercial disputes, and (b) other disputes as notified by such government.
  • Disputes not fit for mediation include those:
  • (i) relating to claims against minors or persons of unsound mind,
  • (ii) involving prosecution for criminal offences,
  • (iii) affecting the rights of third parties, and
  • (iv) relating to levy or collection of taxes.
  • Mediation proceedings will be confidential.
  • A party may withdraw from mediation after the first two mediation sessions.
  • The mediation process must be completed within 180 days (even if the parties fail to arrive at an agreement), which may be extended by another 180 days by the parties.
  • Mediators only assist the parties to settle their dispute, and cannot impose a settlement on the them.
  • Mediators may be appointed by: (i) the parties by agreement, or (ii) a mediation service provider (an institution administering mediation).
  • The central government will establish the Mediation Council of India to perform the following functions:
  • (i) registration of mediators, and
  • (ii) recognising mediation service providers and mediation institutes (providing training, education and certification of mediators).
  • Agreements resulting from mediation will be final, binding, and enforceable in the same manner as court judgments (except agreements arrived at after community mediation).
  • Mediated settlement agreements (besides those arrived at in court referred mediation or by Lok Adalat or Permanent Lok Adalat) may be challenged only on grounds of:
  • (i) fraud,
  • (ii) corruption,
  • (iii) impersonation, or
  • (iv) relating to disputes not fit for mediation.
  • Community mediation may be attempted to resolve disputes likely to affect the peace and harmony amongst residents of a locality.

 

D) Agriculture, Geography, Environment and Biodiversity

  1. What is Gateway to Hell (IE)
  • Context: Turkmenistan has ordered experts to find a way to extinguish a fire in a huge natural gas crater, the Darvaza gas crater also known as the ‘Gateway to Hell’.

Analysis

  • The carter is located in the Karakum Desert.
  • Turkmenistan has been at the centre of methane leakages.
  • The crater has become a significant tourist attraction in the country and also a source of methane leakages.
  • Turkmenistan is one of the five Caspian Sea littoral countries (Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkmenistan), an area with large volumes of oil and natural gas reserves.
  • Methane is the primary contributor to the formation of ground-level ozone, a hazardous air pollutant and greenhouse gas.
  • Methane is also a powerful greenhouse gas. Over a 20-year period, it is 80 times more potent at warming than carbon dioxide.”

Karakum Desert

  • The desert is crossed by the second largest irrigation canal in the world, the Karakum Canal, which brings water from the Amu Darya to southern regions of the desert.

TAPI Pipeline

  • The Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India (TAPI) is a proposed natural gas pipeline to be developed by the Asian Development Bank.
  • It is proposed to run from the Galkynysh field in Turkmensitan to Fazilka (Punjab) in India.

 

E) International Relations

  1. 70th anniversary of the Rubber-Rice Pact (TH, pg 11)
  • Context: China and Sri Lanka launched celebrations marking the 70th anniversary of the Rubber-Rice Pact.

Analysis

  • According to the Ceylon-China Trade Agreement of 1952, there were specific commitments by Sri Lanka to purchase rice, and for China to buy rubber; the values of goods were to balance.

The trade was based on barter exports and imports to balance every year, only the outstanding balance at the end-of-the year was to be settled in foreign exchange. It continued for 30 years.