UPSC PRELIMS & MAINS
NATIONAL GREEN TRIBUNAL-(NGT):
- The NGT was established in 2010 under the National Green Tribunal Act.
- It is a specialized environmental court that deals with cases relating to environmental protection and the conservation of forests
- It has judicial powers that allow it to exclusively decide civil environmental matters.
- The tribunal is guided by principles of natural justice and is not bound by the mainstream code of civil procedure
- NGT allows for more relevant and greater expertise, sets up alternative dispute resolution mechanisms and offers a path for the evolution of environmental jurisprudence.
- Reduce the pressure and burden on the High Courts and Supreme Court
- Access to justice is denied by two means in NGT:
- firstly, by the provision of the limitation period and secondly, by virtue of NGT being located in only big cities spread across India.
Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD):
- It is a formation of four countries (Japan, India, Australia and U.S)
- A common ground of being the democratic nations and common interests of unhindered maritime trade and security-Gave birth to this QUAD
- The idea was first given by Japanese prime minister Shinzo Abe in 2007, However,the idea couldn’t go ahead with Australia pulling out of it due to chinese pressure.
- QUAD is an Opportunity for like-minded countries to share notes and collaborate on projects of mutual interest.
- Members share a vision of an open and free Indo-Pacific.
- It is one of the many avenues for interaction among India, Australia, Japan and the U.S and should not be seen in an exclusive context.
IIP-Index Of Industrial Production:
- The Index of Industrial Production (IIP) is an index that indicates the performance of various industrial sectors of the Indian economy.
- It is calculated and published by the Central Statistical Organisation (CSO) every month.
- It is a composite indicator of the general level of industrial activity in the economy.
- Base year for IIP is 2011-2012
- This index gives the growth rates of different industry groups of the economy over a specified time period.
- The industry groups that it measures are classified under the following:
- Broad sectors like manufacturing, mining, and electricity.
- Use-based sectors like capital goods, basic goods, intermediate goods, infrastructure goods, consumer durables, and consumer non-durables.
- The eight core industries of India represent about 40% of the weight of items that are included in the IIP. The Eight Core Sectors/Industries are:
CAG-Comptroller And Audit General Of India:
- The Constitution of India provides for an independent office of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) appointed by the president of India
- He is the head of the Indian Audit and Accounts Department.
- He is the guardian of the public purse and controls the entire financial system of the country at both the levels- the center and state.
- His duty is to uphold the Constitution of India and the laws of Parliament in the field of financial administration.
- Articles-(148-151) of the Indian constitution talks about CAG
- G.C.MURMU is the present
FUNCTIONS OF CAG:
He audits all transactions of the Central and state governments related to debt, sinking funds, deposits, advances, suspense accounts, and remittance business.
- He audits the accounts of any other authority when requested by the President or Governor e.g. Local bodies.
- He submits his audit reports relating to the accounts of the Centre to the President, who shall, in turn, place them before both the houses of Parliament.
- He submits his audit reports relating to the accounts of a State to the Governor, who shall, in turn, place them before the state legislature.
- He ascertains and certifies the net proceeds of any tax or duty and his certificate is final on the matter.
- He acts as a guide, friend, and philosopher of the Public Accounts Committee of the Parliament.
- He submits 3 audit reports to the President: an audit report on appropriation accounts, an audit report on financial accounts and the audit report on public undertakings.
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