• The NGT was established in 2010 under the National Green Tribunal Act.
  • It is a specialized environmental court that deals with cases relating to environmental protection and the conservation of forests  
  • It has judicial powers that allow it to exclusively decide civil environmental matters.  
  • The tribunal is guided by principles of natural justice and is not bound by the mainstream code of civil procedure
  • NGT allows for more relevant and greater expertise, sets up alternative dispute resolution mechanisms and offers a path for the evolution of environmental jurisprudence. 
  • Reduce the pressure and burden on the High Courts and Supreme Court
  • Access to justice is denied by two means in NGT:
    •  firstly, by the provision of the limitation period and secondly, by virtue of NGT being located in only big cities spread across India. 

Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD):

  • It is a formation of four countries (Japan, India, Australia and U.S)
  • A common ground of being the democratic nations and common interests of unhindered maritime trade and security-Gave birth to this QUAD 
  • The idea was first given by Japanese prime minister Shinzo Abe in 2007, However,the idea couldn’t go ahead with Australia pulling out of it due to chinese pressure.
  • QUAD is an Opportunity for like-minded countries to share notes and collaborate on projects of mutual interest.
  • Members share a vision of an open and free Indo-Pacific.
  • It is one of the many avenues for interaction among India, Australia, Japan and the U.S and should not be seen in an exclusive context.


IIP-Index Of Industrial Production:

  • The Index of Industrial Production (IIP) is an index that indicates the performance of various industrial sectors of the Indian economy.
  • It is calculated and published by the Central Statistical Organisation (CSO) every month.
  • It is a composite indicator of the general level of industrial activity in the economy.
  • Base year for IIP is 2011-2012
  • This index gives the growth rates of different industry groups of the economy over a specified time period.
  • The industry groups that it measures are classified under the following:
    • Broad sectors like manufacturing, mining, and electricity.
    • Use-based sectors like capital goods, basic goods, intermediate goods, infrastructure goods, consumer durables, and consumer non-durables.
  • The eight core industries of India represent about 40% of the weight of items that are included in the IIP. The Eight Core Sectors/Industries are:

CAG-Comptroller And Audit General Of India:

  • The Constitution of India provides for an independent office of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) appointed by the president of India  
  • He is the head of the Indian Audit and Accounts Department. 
  • He is the guardian of the public purse and controls the entire financial system of the country at both the levels- the center and state.
  • His duty is to uphold the Constitution of India and the laws of Parliament in the field of financial administration.
  • Articles-(148-151) of the Indian constitution talks about CAG
  • G.C.MURMU is the present


He audits all transactions of the Central and state governments related to debt, sinking funds, deposits, advances, suspense accounts, and remittance business.

  • He audits the accounts of any other authority when requested by the President or Governor e.g. Local bodies.
  • He submits his audit reports relating to the accounts of the Centre to the President, who shall, in turn, place them before both the houses of Parliament.
  • He submits his audit reports relating to the accounts of a State to the Governor, who shall, in turn, place them before the state legislature.
  • He ascertains and certifies the net proceeds of any tax or duty and his certificate is final on the matter.
  • He acts as a guide, friend, and philosopher of the Public Accounts Committee of the Parliament.
  • He submits 3 audit reports to the President: an audit report on appropriation accounts, an audit report on financial accounts and the audit report on public undertakings.

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