10thFebruary,2022 ; Daily Current Affairs

Daily Current Affairs   Date :10thFebruary,2022

 (30+ Questions hit in Prelims 2021 from this series)

Covers 4 Most relevant Sources

  • The Hindu
  • Indian Express
  • PIB
  • Mint


  • ITER: The Global Fusion Project (TH, pg 1)
  • What is an mRNA Vaccine? (TH)
  • Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) and INCOIS (TH, pg 5)
  • National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) (PIB)
  • Government Banned the Import of Drones With Immediate Effect (TH, pg 12)
  • Financial support to Unorganised Sector (TH, pg 12) 
  • Scheme for Economic Empowerment for DNTs (SEED) (PIB)
  • Bali Islands in Sunderbans(PIB)


  1. ITER: The Global Fusion Project (TH, pg 1)

  • Context:Scientists at the Joint European Torus (JET) facility near Oxford in central England have achieved a new milestone in producing nuclear fusion energy, or imitating the way energy is produced in the sun.
  • Energy by nuclear fusion is one of mankind’s long-standing quests as it promises to be low carbon, safer than how nuclear energy is now produced and, with an efficiency that can technically exceed a 100%.
  • A kilogram of fusion fuel contains about 10 million times as much energy as a kilogram of coal, oil or gas. The energy was produced in a machine called a tokamak, a doughnut-shaped apparatus.
  • The JET site is the largest operational one of its kind in the world.
  • Deuterium and tritium, which are isotopes of hydrogen, are heated to temperatures 10 times hotter than the centre of the sun to create plasma. This is held in place using superconductor electromagnets as it spins around, fuses and releases tremendous energy as heat.
  • The record and scientific data from these crucial experiments are a major boost for the ITER, the larger and more advanced version of the JET. The ITER is a fusion research mega-project supported by seven members — China, the European Union, India, Japan, South Korea, Russia and the U.S. — and based in the south of France. It seeks to further demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy.
Introduction to ITER-India
  • ITER is an experimental fusion reactor facility under construction in Cadarache, South of France to prove the feasibility of nuclear fusion for future source of energy.
  • In southern France, 35 nations* are collaborating to build the world’s largest tokamak, a magnetic fusion device that has been designed to prove the feasibility of fusion as a large-scale and carbon-free source of energy based on the same principle that powers our Sun and stars.
  • ITER will be the first fusion device to produce net energy.
  • Net energy: When the total power produced during a fusion plasma pulse surpasses the thermal injected to heat the plasma.
  • ITER partners are the European Union, China, India, Japan, South Korea, Russia and the United States of America.
  • European Union being the host party contributes 45% while the rest of the parties contribute 9% each.
  • Most of these contributions are through ‘in-kind’ procurement of ITER components.
  • India formally joined the ITER Project in 2005.
  • ITER Organization (IO) is the central team responsible for construction at site and operation, while the ITER partners created their own domestic agencies to deliver their commitments to ITER.
  • ITER-India is the Indian domestic agency.
  • India’s is responsible for delivery of the following ITER packages:
  • Cryostat
  • In-wall Shielding
  • Cooling Water System
  • Cryogenic System
  • Ion-Cyclotron RF Heating System
  • Electron Cyclotron RF Heating System
  • Diagnostic Neutral Beam System
  • Power Supplies
  • Diagnostics
What is Fusion?
  • Fusion is the energy source of the Sun and stars.
  • In the tremendous heat and gravity at the core of these stellar bodies, hydrogen nuclei collide, fuse into heavier helium atoms and release tremendous amounts of energy in the process.
  • Fusion reaction is a nuclear process by which nuclei of two light elements fuse to produce a fast, heavier nucleus and an even faster nucleon, i.e., a neutron or a proton.
  • There is a small mass difference, say m, between the initial and the final reaction products which gets converted into energy through Einstein’s equation E=mc2, c being the speed of light.
  • This energy comes out in the form of kinetic energy of the product particles and can be converted into electricity by conventional technologies.
  • For such a reaction to occur, the reacting nuclei need to have enough kinetic energy to overcome the repulsive electrostatic barrier between any two of them.
  • For this to happen in laboratory experiments, the reacting particles need to be heated to very high temperatures, more than the temperature at the core of the sun.
  • At such high temperatures, matter remains in plasma state, a collection of charged particles.
  • Twentieth-century fusion science identified the most efficient fusion reaction in the laboratory setting to be the reaction between two hydrogen isotopes, deuterium (D) and tritium (T).
  • The DT fusion reaction produces the highest energy gain at the “lowest” temperatures.
  • A Deuterium and a Tritium nucleus fuse to produce a Helium nucleus and a neutron.
  • In a plasma undergoing fusion, the reactions can be self-sustained, as part of the kinetic energy of the resulting charged Helium can be used to maintain the very high temperatures required to sustain the fusion reactions.
  • Three conditions must be fulfilled to achieve fusion in a laboratory:
  • very high temperature (on the order of 150,000,000° Celsius);
  • sufficient plasma particle density (to increase the likelihood that collisions do occur); and
  • sufficient confinement time (to hold the plasma, which has a propensity to expand, within a defined volume).
  • At extreme temperatures, electrons are separated from nuclei and a gas becomes a plasma—often referred to as the fourth state of matter.
  • Fusion plasmas provide the environment in which light elements can fuse and yield energy.
What is a Tokamak?
  • The tokamakis an experimental machine designed to harness the energy of fusion.
  • In a tokamak device, powerful magnetic fields are used to confine and control the plasma.
  • Inside a tokamak, the energy produced through the fusion of atoms is absorbed as heat in the walls of the vessel.
  • Just like a conventional power plant, a fusion power plant will use this heat to produce steam and then electricity by way of turbines and generators.
  • ITER will be the world’s largest tokamak.
  • ITER’s First Plasma is scheduled for December 2025.
  • That will be the first time the machine is powered on, and the first act of ITER’s multi-decade operational program.
The following advantages make fusion worth pursuing:
  • Abundant energy: Fusing atoms together in a controlled way releases nearly four million times more energy than a chemical reaction such as the burning of coal, oil or gas and four times as much as nuclear fission reactions (at equal mass).
  • Sustainability: Fusion fuels are widely available and nearly inexhaustible.
  • Deuterium can be distilled from all forms of water, while tritium will be produced during the fusion reaction as fusion neutrons interact with lithium.
  • Terrestrial reserves of lithium would permit the operation of fusion power plants for more than 1,000 years, while sea-based reserves of lithium would fulfil needs for millions of years.
  • No CO: Fusion doesn’t emit harmful toxins like carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Its major by-product is helium: an inert, non-toxic gas.
  • No long-lived radioactive waste: Nuclear fusion reactors produce no high activity, long-lived nuclear waste.
  • Limited risk of proliferation: Fusion doesn’t employ fissile materials like uranium and plutonium.
  • Radioactive tritium is neither a fissile nor a fissionable material.
  • There are no enriched materials in a fusion reactor like ITER that could be exploited to make nuclear weapons.
  • No risk of meltdown: A Fukushima-type nuclear accident is not possible in a tokamak fusion device.
  • It is difficult enough to reach and maintain the precise conditions necessary for fusion—if any disturbance occurs, the plasma cools within seconds and the reaction stops.
  • The quantity of fuel present in the vessel at any one time is enough for a few seconds only and there is no risk of a chain reaction.
  • Cost: The average cost per kilowatt of electricity is also expected to be similarto that of a fission reactor,slightly more expensive at the beginning, when the technology is new, and less expensive as economies of scale bring the costs down.
Fission vs Fusion
  • Both fission and fusion are nuclear processes by which atoms are altered to create energy.
  • Fission is the division of one atom into two, and fusion is the combination of two lighter atoms into a larger one.
  • They are opposing processes, and therefore very different.
  • Nuclear fission releases heat energy by splitting atoms.
  • Nuclear fusion refers to the “union of atomic nuclei to form heavier nuclei resulting in the release of enormous amounts of energy.”


  • Both fission and fusion are nuclear reactions that produce energy.
  • Some scientists believe there are opportunities with such a power source since fusion creates less radioactive material than fission and has a nearly unlimited fuel supply.
  • However, progress is slow due to challenges with understanding how to control the reaction in a contained space.
  • Fission is used in nuclear power reactors since it can be controlled, while fusion is not utilized to produce power since the reaction is not easily controlled.

Do you know?

  • In June 2020, engineering and construction giant Larsen & Toubro (L&T) has achieved a major milestone under ‘Make in India’ initiative by building a cryostat (a vacuum pressure vessel made of stainless steel) for the $20-billion world’s largest nuclear fusion reactor being built in France under the global fusion project.
  • The cryostat’s function is to provide cooling to the fusion reactor and keep very high temperatures at its core under control.


  1. What is an mRNA Vaccine? (TH)

  • Context:India’s mRNA vaccine likely by April, 2022. The mRNA vaccine being developed by Pune-based Gennova Biopharmaceuticals is currently in phase 2/3 trials to evaluate the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of the candidate vaccine in healthy subjects.
  • Globally, mRNA vaccines have been at the vanguard of inoculation programmes in the United States and Europe because they exploit recent advances in molecular biotechnology and are said to be quicker to manufacture than older, well-established vaccine design principles.
  • A limitation of the mRNA vaccines was that they were required to be stored in sub-zero conditions — a tough proposition in a country where such a degree of refrigeration is limited in availability.
  • However, the prospective Gennova vaccine can be stored in ordinary refrigerators, the makers of Gennova have claimed earlier.
  • The mRNA vaccine, can also purportedly be tweaked to be effective against newer variants, but so far, all the vaccines developed — including the prospective Gennova vaccine — have been customised to the original SARS-CoV-2.
  • Gennova has been funded with ₹125 crore from the Department of Biotechnology (DBT).
  • Note: You have already prepared this topic in detail from the11 Nov 2021 file.
  1. Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) and INCOIS (TH, pg 5)

  • Context:Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) has carried out coastal vulnerability assessment for entire Indian coast at States level to bring out an Atlas comprising 156 maps on 1:1,00,000 scales to prepare a Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI).
  • From this CVI, it can be delineated that Gujarat’s 124 coastal km is going to get affected or 5.36%, Maharashtra 11 km or 1.22% and then Karnataka & Goa 48 km or 9.54%, Kerala 15 km or 2.39%, Tamil Nadu 65 km or 6.38%, Andhra Pradesh 6 km or 0.55 %, Odisha 37 km or 7.51% West Bengal 49 km or 2.56%, Lakshadweep Islands 1 km or 0.81%, Andaman Islands 24 km or 0.96 km and Nicobar Islands 8 km or 0.97%.
Sea-level rise
  • While the maps determine the coastal risks due to future sea-level rise based on the physical and geological parameters for the Indian coast, the CVI uses the relative risk that physical changes will occur as sea-level rises are quantified based on parameters like: tidal range; wave height; coastal slope; coastal elevation; shoreline change rate; geomorphology; and historical rate of relative sea-level change.
  • A coastal Multi-Hazard Vulnerability Mapping (MHVM) was also carried out using parameters like sea level change rate, shoreline change rate, high-resolution coastal elevation, extreme water level from tide gauges and their return periods.
  • These parameters were synthesized to derive the composite hazard zones that can be inundated along the coastal low-lying areas due to extreme flooding events.
  • This MHVM mapping was carried for the entire mainland of India on a 1:25000 scale. These maps depict the coastal low-lying areas exposed to the coastal inundation.
Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS)
  • Earth System Science Organization- Indian National Centre for Ocean Information System (ESSO-INCOIS) was established as an autonomous body in 1999 under the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) and is a unit of the ESSO.
Activities of INCOIS
  • Provides round-the-clock monitoring and warning services for the coastal population on tsunamis, storm surges, high waves, etc.through the in-house Indian Tsunami Early Warning Centre (ITEWC).
  • The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO designated ITEWC as a Regional Tsunami Service Provider (RTSP) to provide tsunami warnings to countries on the Indian Ocean Rim.
  • Provides daily advisories, called Potential Fishing Zone Advisories, to fisher folk to help them easily locate areas of abundant fish in the ocean while saving on both fuel and time used to search for the same.
  • Short term (3-7 days) Ocean State Forecasts (waves, currents, sea surface temperature, etc.) are issued daily to fisher folk, the shipping industry, the oil and natural gas industry, the Navy, the Coast Guard, etc.
  • Generates Global Ocean Analysis data on a daily basis to provide the initial conditions to ocean-atmosphere coupled models used for the prediction of the monsoon and to understand oceanic processes.
  • Established a national network (Indian Seismic and GNSS Network (ISGN)) that integrates Seismic and GNSS stations and seeks to enhance the capability in monitoring seismic activity in India, besides providing high quality data for researchers.
  • Established a VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) aided Emergency Communication System (VECS) (a fail-safe satellite-based communication system) to provide tsunami warnings with the least possible time delay even when there is a failure in conventional communication systems.
  • ESSO-INCOIS has been designated as the National Oceanographic Data Centre by IOC/IODE of UNESCO and is also identified as the Regional Argo Data Centre for the Indian Ocean.
  • Deploys and maintains a suite of Ocean Observing Systems in the Indian Ocean to collect data on various oceanic parameters to understand the processes in the ocean and to predict their changes.
International Involvement
  • ESSO-INCOIS has a prominent international presence, being a permanent member of the Indian delegation to IOC of UNESCO and a founding member of the Indian Ocean Global Ocean Observing System (IOGOOS) and the Partnership for Observing the Oceans (POGO).
  • ESSO-INCOIS houses the IOGOOS secretariat and the Sustained Indian Ocean Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Research (SIBER) International Programme Office.
  • Through the Regional Integrated Multi-Hazard Early Warning System for Africa and Asia (RIMES), ESSO-INCOIS provides ocean information and forecasts to member countries.
  • ESSO-INCOIS is also a member of the Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE), Ocean View Science Team (GOVST) and Patron’s Group.


  1. National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) (PIB)

  • Context:National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) compiles and publishes information on crimes against women in its publication ‘Crime in India’.
  • The data shows decline in the crime against women during the year 2020 as compared to 2019.
National Crime Records Bureau
  • NCRB, now under the Home Ministry, was set-up in 1986 to function as a repository of information on crime and criminals so as to assist the investigators in linking crime to the perpetrators.
  • NCRB developed Crime Criminal Information System (CCIS) in the year 1995, Common Integrated Police Application (CIPA) in 2004, and finally Crime and Criminal Tracking Network & System (CCTNS) in 2009.
  • National Digital Police Portal allows search for a criminal/suspect on a national data base apart from providing various services to citizens like filing of complaints online and seeking antecedent verification of tenants, domestic helps, drivers etc.
  • NCRB also compiles and publishes annual National Crime Statistics e., Crime in India, Accidental Deaths & Suicides, Prison Statistics and Finger Prints. 
  • NCRB has been conferred with “Digital India Awards 2016-Silver Open Data Championship” from the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology.
  • NCRB has also floated various IT based Public Services like, VahanSamanvay (online Motor Vehicle Matching), Talash (matching of missing persons and dead bodies).
  • In addition, NCRB also maintains Counterfeit Currency Information and Management System (FICN) and Firearms Coordination System for lost and recovered firearms.
Cyber Crime Prevention against Women and Children (CCPWC) portal
  • Union Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) has launched Cyber Crime Prevention against Women and Children (CCPWC) portal to check objectionable online content.
  • The portal will allow citizens to lodge complaints on objectionable online content related to child pornography, child sexual abuse material and sexually explicit material such as rape and gang rape.
  • The portal will enable citizens to report complainants in without disclosing their identity.
  • It also allows complainants to upload objectionable content and URL to assist in investigation by state Police.
  • The complaints registered through this portal will be handled by police authorities of respective State/UTs.
  • In this regard, NCRB has been notified as Central Government nodal agency to issue notices under the Information Technology (IT) Act.
Other functions of NCRB
  • To function as a clearing house of information on crime and criminals including those operating at National and International levels so as to assists the investigators.
  • To store, coordinate and disseminate information on inter-state and international criminals from and to respective States, national investigating agencies, courts and prosecutors in India without having to refer to the Police Station records.
  • To collect and process crime statistics at the National level.
  • Executive and develop computer-based systems for the Central Police Organisations.
  • To function as the National storehouse of fingerprint (FP) records of convicted persons including FP records of foreign criminals.


  1. Government Banned the Import of Drones With Immediate Effect (TH, pg 12)

  • Context:The government banned the import of drones with immediate effect, except for research and development, defence and security purposes, to promote made in India drones.
  • While exceptions were provided for R&D, defence and security, importing drones for these purposes will require “due clearances.”
  • The Directorate General of Foreign Trade of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry notified the Indian Trade Classification (Harmonised System), 2022 effecting the prohibition of drones for import.
  • However, import of drone components will not require any approvals.
  • Last year, the Ministry of Civil Aviation notified liberalised drone rules that abolished a slew of approvals with the aim to encourage R&D and creating India as a drone hub. The government also approved a Production-Linked Incentive (PLI) scheme for drones and their components with an allocation of ₹120 crore for three financial years.


  1. Financial support to Unorganised Sector (TH, pg 12) 

  • Context:The government has launched a number of programmes for employment and income generation for the citizens such as the Aatmanirbhar Bharat Rojgar Yojana to incentivise employers for creation of new jobs along with social security benefits.
  • The Government had announced Rs 1.70 Lakh Crore ‘Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana’ relief package on 26.03.2020 to help the poor in the fight against Corona Virus.
  • Government had launched Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana (PMGKY) under which Government of India had contributed both 12% employer’s share and 12% employee’s share under Employees Provident Fund (EPF), totaling 24% of the wage for the wage month from March to August, 2020 for the establishments having upto 100 employees with 90% of such employees earning less than Rs. 15000/-.
  • Government has also taken various measures under Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana (PMGKY). Some of these are as follows:
  • Under Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Anna Yojana (PMGKAY), 5 kg wheat or rice and 1kg of preferred pulses for free every month for three months; the PMGKAY scheme was extended till the end of November 2020.
  • An ex-gratia of Rs. 500 per month for three months for women Jan Dhan account holders.
  • Increase in MNREGA wage to Rs. 202 a day from Rs. 182 to benefit 13.62 crore families.
  • An ex-gratia of Rs. 1,000 to 3 crore poor senior citizen, poor widows and poor disabled.
  • The Government is providing fiscal stimulus of more than rupees twenty seven lakh crore as part of the Aatmanirbhar financial Package.
  • Aatmanirbhar Bharat package comprises of various long term schemes/ programmes/ policies for making the country self-reliant and to create employment opportunities for all the sectors and regions.
  • Aatmanirbhar Bharat Rozgar Yojana (ABRY) has been launched to incentivize creation of new employment alongwith social security benefits and restoration of loss of employment during COVID-19 pandemic.
  • This scheme being implemented through the Employees Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO) reduces the financial burden of the employers of various sectors/industries including MSMEs and encourages them to hire more workers.
  • Under ABRY, the Government of India is crediting for a period of two years, both the employees’ share (12% of wages) and employers share’ (12% of wages) of contribution payable or only the employees’ share, depending on employment strength of the EPFO registered establishments.
  • Government is implementing Pradhan Mantri RojgarProtsahan Yojana (PMRPY) since 2016 with the objective to incentivise employers for creation of new employment and also aimed to bring informal workers to the formal workforce.
  • Under the scheme, Government of India is paying Employer’s full contribution i.e. 12% towards Employees’ Provident Fund (EPF) and Employees’ Pension Scheme (EPS) both (as admissible from time to time) for a period of three years to the new employees through Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO).
  • The terminal date for registration of beneficiary through establishment was 31st March 2019.
  • The beneficiaries registered upto 31st March, 2019 will continue to receive the benefits for 3 years from the date of registration under the scheme.
  • PM-SVANidhi Scheme has facilitated collateral free working capital loan upto Rs.10,000/- for one-year tenure to street vendors, to resume their businesses.
  • Central Government has given directions to State Governments to use the Building and Construction Workers Welfare Fund to provide relief to Construction Workers.
  • Government has earmarked an additional Rs. 40,000 crore under MGNREGS to generate nearly 300 crore person days in total addressing need for more work including returning migrant workers.


  1. Scheme for Economic Empowerment for DNTs (SEED) (PIB)

  • Context:Development and Welfare Board for De-notified, Nomadic and Semi-Nomadic Communities (DWBDNCs) has formulated a Scheme for Economic Empowerment for DNTs (SEED).


  • The SEED scheme is being implemented by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.
  • It has the following four components: –
  • To provide coaching of good quality for DNT candidates to enable them to appear in the competitive examinations
  • To provide Health Insurance to them
  • To facilitate livelihood initiative at community level and strengthen small clusters of DNT/NT/SNT Communities institutions.
  • To provide financial assistance for construction of houses for members of these communities.
  • The ministry has constituted the Development and Welfare Board for De-notified, Nomadic and Semi-Nomadic Communities (DWBDNCs) for implementaition of this scheme.
What are De-notified, Nomadic and Semi-Nomadic Communities?
  • The British Government had from time to time declared some of the tribes which, according to them, were involved in criminal activities as Criminal Tribes.
  • The Criminal Tribes Act (CTA), 1871 provided that if a Local Government had reason to believe that any tribe, gang or class of people is addicted to the systematic commission of non-bailable offences, it may, with the authorization of the viceroy, declare such tribe etc. as a “Criminal Tribe”.
  • The creation of this act was concerned with the Revolt of 1857, where many tribal chiefs as Dhan Singh Gurjar were labelled traitors and considered rebellious.
  • Because of this label, restriction on their movements was also imposed.
  • Adult male members of such groups were forced to report weekly to the local police.
  • Lord Mayo was the Viceroy during the passage of this act.
  • The CTA was revised in 1911 and in 1924.The CTA, 1924, was repealed by the Criminal Tribes Laws (Repeal) Act, 1952 on the recommendations of the Shri AnanthasayanamAyyangar Committee.
Denotified Tribes
  • The tribes notified earlier as Criminal Tribes, stood denotified after the implementation of Criminal Tribes Laws (Repeal) Act and the name ‘Denotified Tribes’ (DTs) has been in use for them since then.
  • Most DNTs are categorized as SC,ST or OBC though a few of the DNTs are not covered in any of these categories
Nomadic and Semi-nomadic Tribes
  • Terms such as nomads and semi-nomads are applied to ‘social groups who undertook a fairly frequent, usually seasonal physical movement as port of their livelihood strategy in the recent past.
  • The term semi-nomad is mostly used to describe those sections of nomads whose duration, distance and frequency of movement is comparitively less than others.
  • The distinction between nomads and semi-nomods do not involve distinguishable ethnic categories or social groups, it rather describes the degree of mobility practiced by them.
  • There are nearly 1,500 nomadic and semi-nomadic tribes and 198 denotified tribes, comprising 15 crore Indians, according to the Renke Commission, 2008.
  • These tribes remain socially and economically marginalised even now, depriving many of them of basic human rights.
Culture and Tradition of De-notified, Nomadic and Semi-Nomadic Tribes
  • The customs of Nomadic communities have a long tradition of continuity and many of their practices claim on ancient heritage.
  • They have their own Gods and Goddesses. Moreover, their own festivals and celebrations ore diversified.
  • The social and cultural characteristics of nomadic communities are closely related with their economic activities.
  • As is the case with most of the communities in lndia, large majority of De-notified and nomadic communities are primarily patriarchal.
Status in India
  • It has been estimated that South Asia has the world’s largest nomadic population. In India, roughly 10 per cent of the population is Denotified and Nomadic.
  • The absence of any uniform classification across the country is among the biggest dilemmas regarding DNTs.
  • They are not enumerated separately in the Census, making it difficult to ascertain concrete figures.
  • Also, these communities are spread across SC, ST and OBC communities in different states.
  • DNTs, as a whole are not recognised as a separate social category under constitutional schedules.
  • Many of the communities were subsumed under SC, ST or OBC, but their biggest hurdle is access to schemes and, as a first step, access to the caste certificates.
  • According to the Renke Commission, 2008, although the DNTs are spread across different backward class categories and are entitled to various schemes under these categories, they are unable to access any of these benefits. There were two main reasonsfor this — one was identity certificates; the other, the lack of awareness.
Schemes for DNT
  • The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment is implementing the following schemes for the welfare of the DNTs.
Dr. Ambedkar Pre-Matric and Post-Matric Scholarship for DNTs
  • This Centrally Sponsored Scheme was launched for the welfare of those DNT students who are not covered under SC, ST or OBC.
  • The income ceiling for eligibility is Rs. 2.00 lakh per annum.
  • The scheme is implemented through State Governments/UT Administrations.
  • The expenditure is shared between the Centre and the States in the ratio of 75:25.
Nanaji Deshmukh Scheme of Construction of Hostels for DNT Boys and Girls 
  • This Centrally Sponsored Scheme is implemented through State Governments/ UT Administrations/ Central Universities.
  • The aim of the scheme is to provide hostel facilities to those DNT students; who are not covered under SC, ST or OBC; to enable them to pursue higher education.
  • The income ceiling for eligibility is Rs. 2.00 lakh per annum.
  • The expenditure is shared between the Centre and the States in the ratio of 75:25.
Assistance to Voluntary Organization working for the Welfare of Other Backward Classes (OBCs)
  • From the year 2017-18, the scheme “Assistance to Voluntary Organization working for the Welfare of Other Backward Classes (OBCs)” has been extended for DNTs and EBCs as “Central Sector Scheme of Assistance for Skill Development of Backward Classes (OBCs)/ De-notified, Nomadic and Semi-Nomadic Tribes (DNTs)/ Economic Backward Classes (EBCs)”.


  1. Bali Islands in Sunderbans(PIB)

  • Context:Bali island in the dense mangrove thickets of Sunderbans which was totally disconnected from the mainstream of development since Independence, is now bustling with Khadi activities- a result of efforts by Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC).
  • Bali island, Sundarbans is in West Bengal.
  • Tora is a Mangrove species found here and in Japanese TORA means “Tiger”.
  • The island with about 37000 inhabitants has fishing, honey collection as their main occupation.
  • India has designated Sundarban Wetland as a Wetland of International Importance.
  • The Indian Sunderbans, considered to be an area south of the Dampier Hodges line, is spread over 9,630 sq. km., of which the mangrove forests are spread over 4,263 sq. km.
  • Dampier Hodges line is an imaginary line, passing through 24 Parganas South and North districts, which indicates the northern-most limits of estuarine zone affected by tidal fluctuations.
  • The Indian Sunderbans comprise almost 43% of the mangrove cover in the country according to a 2017 Forest Survey of India report.
  • The Bhitarkanika mangrove ecosystem in Orissa is the second largest mangrove forest of India mainland. 
  • Ramsar tag makes Indian Sunderbans the largest protected wetland in India (earlier it was Vembanad-Kol Wetland).
  • The Sunderbans is already aUNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • The Sundarban Tiger Reserve is situated within the Site and part of it has been declared a“critical tiger habitat” under national law and also a “Tiger Conservation Landscape” of global importance.
  • Sundarban Biosphere Reserve has been constituted under Man and Biosphere Program.
  • Sundarbans are the only mangrove habitat which supports a significant population of tigers, and they have unique aquatic hunting skills.
  • The Site is also home to a large number of rare and globally threatened species such as the critically endangered northern river terrapin, the endangered Irrawaddy dolphin, and the vulnerable fishing cat.
  • Two of the world’s four horseshoe crab species are also found here.
  • Threats to the survival of the Sunderbans: climate change, sea level rise, widespread construction and clearing of mangrove forests for fisheries, coal-based thermal power plant in the vicinity etc.

Do you know?

  • Out of the 102 islands at Sunderbans, 54 are inhabited.
  • Sunderbans has a highly humid climate.
  • The Sunderbans is the largest mangrove swamp, the largest delta and the largest Estuarine National Park in the World.
  • This delta is also among the largest Tiger Reserves in the world.

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